Mango
Botanical Name - Mangifera indica
Family - Anacardiaceae

Mango is a nutritious fruit that is low in calories and high in healthy  plant compounds. It is rich in vitamin c, which is important for farming blood vessels and healthy collagen, as well as helping you heal. Other health benefits of mango include.  

·         May help prevent diabetes

·         Contains immune-boosting nutrients

·         Supports heart health

·         May improve digestive health

·         May support eye health  

 

 

Mangoes  are slightly acidic, with a pH of 3.40 to 4.80. This acidity is due to the presence of malice acid and other organic acids in the fruit. 

Soil

  • Mango comes up on a wide range of soils from alluvial to laterite provided they are deep (minimum 6′) and well drained.
  •  It prefers slightly  acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.5). 

Climate

  • Mango can be grown under both tropical and sub-tropical climate from sea level to 1400 m altitude, provided there is no high humidity, rain or frost during the flowering period.  Places with good rainfall and dry summer are ideal for mango cultivation. It is better to avoid areas with winds and cyclones which may cause flower and fruit shedding and breaking of branches.

Seed Rate
Usually about 80 to 90 kg seeds are required for one acre  land.

Though there are nearly 1000 varieties of mango in India, only following varieties are grown in
different states : Alphonso, Bangalora, Banganpalli, Bombai, Bombay Green, Dashehari, Fazli,
Fernandin, Himsagar, Kesar, Kishen Bhog,Langra, Mankhurd,  Mulgoa, Neelam, Samarbehist,
Chausa, Suvarnarekha, Vanaraj and Zardalu.
Recently some mango hybrids have been released for cultivation by different institutes /
universities. A brief introduction to such varieties is presented below :

Mallika – It is a cross between Neelam and Dashehari. Fruits are medium sized cadmium
coloured with good quality, reported to be a regular bearer.

Amrapali – It is a cross between Dashehari and Neelam. It is a dwarf vigorous type with regular
and late bearing variety. It yields on an average 16 t/ha and about 1600 plants can be
accommodated in one hectare.

Mangeera : It is a cross between Rumani and Neelam. It is a semi vigorous type with a regular
bearing habit. Fruits are medium sized with light yellow coloured skin, firm and fibreless flesh
and sweet to taste.

Ratna : It is a cross between Neelam and Alphonso. It is a regular bearer and free from spongy
tissue. Fruits are medium sized with excellent quality. Flesh is firm and fibreless, deep orange in
colour with high TSS (19-21 Brix).

Arka Aruna : It is a hybrid between Banganapalli and Alphonso with regular bearing habit and
dwarf in stature. About 400 plants can be accommodated per hectare. Fruits are large sized (500
700 gm) with attractive skin colour. Pulp is fibreless, sweet to taste (20-22 Brix). Pulp
percentage is 73 and the fruits are free from spongy tissue.

Arka Puneet : It is a regular and prolific bearing hybrid of the cross between Alphonso and the
Banganapalli. Fruits are medium sized (220-250 gm) with attractive skin colour, having red
blush. Pulp is free from fibre, pulp percentage being 70 percent. Fruits are sweet to taste (20-22
Brix) with good keeping quality and free from spongy tissue. It is a good variety for processing
also.

Arka Anmol : It is a semi-vigorous plant type from the cross between Alphonso and Janardhan
Pasand. It is also a regular bearing and free from spongy tissues. Fruits ripen to uniform yellow
colour. Keeping quality of the fruit is very good and it is suitable for export. It has got excellent
sugar and acid blend and fruits weigh on an average about 300 g Pulp is orange in colour.

 Land should be prepared by deep ploughing followed by harrowing and levelling with a gentle slope for good drainage

Time of sowing

  • Planting is usually done in the month of July-August in rainfed areas and during February-March in irrigated areas. In case of heavy rainfall zones, planting is taken up at the end of rainy season.

Spacing
Spacing varies from 10 m x 10 m, in the dry zones where growth is less,
to 12 m x 12 m, in heavy rainfall areas and rich soils where abundant vegetative growth occurs.

Sowing Depth

  • Mango has very deep and strong root system thus soils for mango should be quite deep for easy penetration and spread of the root system.
  • Soils with a depth of 1.2 m or more are ideal for mango crop. More the depth of soil, better is the suitability.
  • Hard soils, soils poor in depth or soils having hard pan in sub-soil should be avoided.
  • The deep and well drained soils with no impervious layers, allow good depth and distribution of root system producing trees of standard size, heavy yields and long life.

.

Method of sowing

  • It refers to arrangement of soil particles.
  • The structure of the soil in different horizons should be open, granular and compact structure should be avoided.
  • The sub-soil should be friable.
  • They should not be impenetrable pans such as clay, Kankar and rocky.
  • The presence of a substratum of loose gravel or murum helps in providing good drainage.

 

Seed Treatment

  • Put the seed in water in a bowl and locate it in a warm place for 24 hours. Remove the seed wrap it in damp paper towels and place the wrapped seed inside a plastic bag or zip lock bag, keeping some opening for air. Place the bag in a warm place, and keep the bag damp. The mango seed will sprout in 1 to 3 weeks.

Manures and Fertilizers

1 Year old

Annual increase

6th year onwards

FYM

10.00

10.00

50

N

0.20

0.20

1.0

P

0.20

0.20

1.0

K

0.30

0.30

1.5

Manures and fertilizers may be applied in September – October. Fertilizers are applied 45 to 90 cm away from the trunk upto the peripheral leaf drip and incorporated.

Fertiliser Application
In general, 170 gm urea, 110 gm single super phosphate and 115 gm muriate of potash per plant per year of the age from first to tenth year and thereafter 1.7 kg, 1.1 kg, and 1.15 kg respectively of these fertilisers per plant per year can be applied in two equal split doses (June-July and October). Foliar spray of 3% urea is recommended before flowering in sandy areas.

 

Timely removal of weeds is one of the most important cultural practices to get sufficient nutrients, water, sunlight, and space for crop plants to grow healthy without any competition from weeds. Weeding also help in controlling many pest and diseases incidences.

Irrigation management is crucial to the production of quality fruit. Water inputs must be geared to tree water requirements, soil factors and fruit physiological requirements.

NEW PLANTING

In a new planting, trees must be irrigated throughout the year, including dry periods which occur during the wet season, to enable rapid establishment of the tree. Water inputs should be appropriate to tree size. In general up to 100 L/tree/week should be sufficient for the first two years. The radius of the sprinkler should be appropriate to tree size. Many growers find that a sprinkler with a distributor plate (radius of 1.0  to 1.5 m) is adequate for up to three years. In subsequent years sprinkler radius should be less than 3 m to ensure that the water is delivered to the root zone under the canopy edge which also helps to reduce weed growth around trees. After the second wet season trees are generally only irrigated during the flowering and fruit development period. (July to November). The soil type determines how early continuous irrigation can cease. Trees grown on light sandy and gravelly soils may require continuous irrigation for a longer  period to allow them to develop an appropriate size canopy.

Diseases:  

1) Powdery Mildew (Oidium mangiferae) :
Symtoms – Powdery mildew is one of the most serious diseases of mango affecting almost all the varieties. The
characteristic symptom of the disease is the white superficial powdery fungal growth on leaves, stalk of
panicles, flowers and young fruits. The affected flowers and fruits drop pre-maturely reducing the crop
load considerably or might even prevent the fruit set. Rains or mists accompanied by cooler nights
during flowering are congenial for the disease spread.
Control: Alternate spraying of Wettable sulphur 0.2 per cent (2 g Sulfex/litre), Tridemorph O.1 per cent
(1 ml Calixin/litre) and Bavistin @ 0.1 % at 15 days interval are recommended for effective control of
the disease. The first spray is to be given at panicle emergence stage.

2)Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) :
It is of widespread occurrence in the field and in storage. The disease causes
serious losses to young shoots, flowers and fruits under favorable climatic
conditions (high humidity, frequent rains and the temperature range of 24-
32°C). The disease produces leaf spot, blossom blight, withered tip, twig blight
and fruit rot symptoms. Tender shoots and foliage are easily affected which
ultimately cause die back of young branches. Older twigs may also be infected
through wounds, which in severe cases may be fatal. Black spots develop on
panicles. Severe infection destroys the entire inflorescence resulting in failure
of fruit setting. Young infected fruits develop black spots, shrivel and drop off.
Fruits infected at mature stage carry the fungus into storage and cause
considerable loss during storage, transit and marketing.
Control : The diseased twigs should be pruned and burnt along with fallen leaves. Spraying twice with
Carbendazirn (Bavistin 0.1%) at 15 days interval during flowering controls blossom infection. Spraying
of copper fungicides (0.3%) is recommended for the control of foliar infection.
Postharvest disease of mango caused by anthracnose could be controlled by dip treatment of fruits in 0
Carbendazim (0.1%) in hot water at 52 C for 15 minutes.
Die Back (Botryodiplodia (Lasiodiplodia) theobromae) :
Die back is one of the serious diseases of mango. The disease on the tree may be noticed at any time
of the year but it is most conspicuous during October-November. The disease is characterized by
drying of twigs and branches followed by complete defoliation, which gives the tree an appearance of
scorching by fire. Initially it is evident by discoloration and darkening of the bark. The dark area
advances and extends outward along the veins of leaves. The affected leaf turns brown and its
margins roll upwards. At this stage, the twig or branch dies, shrivels and leaf falls. This may be
accompanied by exudation of yellowish brown gum.
Control : Pruning of the diseased twigs 2-3 inches below the affected portion and spraying Copper
Oxychloride (0.3%) on infected trees controls the disease. The cut ends of the pruned twigs are pasted
with Copper Oxychloride (0.3%).

3)Phoma Blight (Phoma glomerata) :
The symptoms of the disease are observed only on old leaves. Initially, the lesions are angular, minute,
irregular, yellow to light brown, scattered over leaf lamina. As the lesions enlarge, their colour changes
from brown to cinnamon and they become almost irregular. In case of severe infection such spots
coalesce forming patches resulting in complete withering and defoliation of infected leaves.

Control : The disease is controlled by spraying Benomyl (0.2%) just after the appearance of the
disease followed by 0.3% Miltox (Copper Oxychloride + Zineb) at 20 day interval.


5) (e) Bacterial Canker(Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae) :
Canker is a serious disease in India. The disease causes fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-85%) and
storage rot (5-100%). Many commercial cultivars of mango including Langra, Dashehari, Arnrapali,
Mallika and Totapuri are susceptible to this disease. The disease is found on leaves, petioles, twigs,
branches and fruits. The disease first appears as minute water soaked irregular lesions on any part of
leaf or leaf lamina. Several lesions coalesce to form irregular necrotic cankerous patches. In severe
infections the leaves turn yellow and drop off. Cankerous lesions also appear on petioles, twigs and
young fruits. The water soaked lesions also develop on fruits which later turn dark brown to black. They
often burst open, releasing highly contagious gummy ooze containing bacterial cells.
Control : Three sprays of Streptocycline (0.01%) or Agrimycin-100 (0.01%) after first visual symptom
at 10 day intervals and monthly sprays of Carbendazim (Bavistin 0.1%) or Copper Oxychloride (0.3%)
are effective in controlling the disease.


6)Red Rust (Cepbaleuros virescens) :
The disease attack causes reduction in photosynthetic activity and defoliation of leaves thereby
reducing the vitality of the host plant. The disease is evident by the rusty red spots mainly on leaves and
sometimes on petioles and bark of young twigs. . The spots are greenish grey in colour and velvety in
texture. Later, they turn reddish brown. The circular and slightly elevated spots sometimes coalesce to
form larger and irregular spots. The affected portion of stem cracks. In case of severe infection, the
bark becomes thick, twigs get enlarged but remain stunted and the foliage finally dries up.
Control : Two to three sprays of Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) is effective in controlling the disease.


7) Sooty Mould (Meliola mangiferae) :
The disease is common in the orchards where mealy bug, scale insects and hoppers are not controlled
efficiently. The disease in the field is recognized by the presence of a black sooty mould on the leaf
surface. In severe cases, the trees turn completely black due to the presence of mould over the entire
surface of twigs and leaves. The severity of infection depends on the honey dew secretion of the above
insects. Honey dews secretions from insects stick to the leaf surface and provide necessary medium
for fungal growth. Although the fungus causes no direct damage, the photosynthetic activity of the leaf
is adversely affected.


Control : Pruning of affected branches and their prompt destruction followed by spraying of Wettasulf
(0.2% )+ Metacid (0.1 %)+ gum acacia (0.3%) helps to control the disease.


8) Diplodia Stem-end Rot (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) :
The fungus enters through mechanically injured areas on the stem or
skin. The fungus grows from the pedicel into a circular black lesion
around the pedicel.
Control : Careful handling to minimize mechanical injuries.
Postharvest dip of fruits in Carbendazirn (0.1%) in hot water at 52
± 1°C for 15 minutes controls the disease in storage and transit.

DISEASES


Powdery mildew

Application of Sulphur dust (350 mesh) in the early morning will protect new flush or spray Wettable sulphur 0.2% or Tridemorph 0.05% will control powdery mildew. 

Anthracnose and stalk end-rot

Pre-harvest spraying of Mancozeb 2g/lit or Carbendazim 1g/lit or Thiophanate methyl 1g/lit or Chlorothalonil 2 g/lit, 3 times at 15 days interval will control anthracnose and stalk end-rot.

Sooty mould

Spraying Phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2 ml/ litre + Maida 5% (1 kg Maida or starch) boiled with 1 lit of water and diluted to 20 litres will control the incidence of sooty mould. Avoid spraying during cloudy weather.

Mango malformation

Use of disease free planting material.

  • Diseased plants should be destroyed.
  • Incidence reduced by spraying 100-200ppm NAA during October.
  • Pruning of diseased parts with the basal 15-20 cm apparently healthy portions. 
  • Followed by the spraying of Carbendazim (0.1%). 

Stem end rot                     

  • Dip mangoes in 6 percent borax solution at 43°C for 3 minutes.
  • Harvest mangoes on clear dry day.
  • Injury should be avoided to fruits at all stages of handling.
  • Spray Carbendazim  (0.1%) or Chlorothalonil (0.2%) in the field.

Red rust

  • Bordeaux mixture (1%), or Copper oxychloride 0.25%

Harvest spreads from March to June. Graft plants start bearing at the age of 3 – 4 years (10-20 fruits) to give optimum crop from 10-15th year which continues to increase upto the age of 40 years under good management.

Post harvest treatment

Dip the fruits in 52 ± 1°C hot water immediately after harvest for 5 minutes followed by 8% plant wax (Fruitox or Waxol) to reduce anthracnose disease in mango during storage.  Two pre harvest sprays of 0.20% Mancozeb (2.0 g/lit) will also reduce the incidence.

Post harvest handling of mango

Post harvest losses are 25 -30 per cent of total produce due to improper handling and storage practices. Which amounts to over Rs. 250 crore.

Management steps includes

  • Pre harvest management
  • Assessment of harvest maturity
  • Harvesting
  • Sorting and grading
  • Pest management
  • Uniform ripening of fruits
  • Packaging
  • Storage
  • ransport

Pre-harvest management

  • Bagging of fruits for controlling the post harvest diseases and bruises with newspaper or brown paper bags one month prior to harvest.
  • Harvested fruits ripe uniformly without any disease and fruit fly infestation.
  • The problem of blackening upon ripeninver come.
  • The shelf life of such fruits is also increased by two to three days.
  • Checks jelly seed formation (softening of pulp near stone).
  • This technique is eco-friendly and job oriented. (Bags are not suited for coloured mango varieties)

Harvest maturity

  • The harvest maturity takes 12 – 15 weeks after fruit set.
  • Dashehari and Langra – 12 weeks
  • Chausa and Mallika – 15 weeks
  • At the time of maturity, stone becomes hard and pulp colour changes from white to cream.
  • In few varieties fruits sink in water (Langra, Chausa)

Harvesting

  • The harvest maturity takes 12 – 15 weeks after fruit set.
  • At the time of maturity, stone becomes hard and pulp colour changes from white to cream.
  • In few varieties fruits sink in water (Langra, Chausa).

Sorting and grading

  • Separate mature unripe fruits from immature and ripe fruits.
  • Grade fruits according to size and weight
  • Sort out defected, deformed, bruised and diseased fruits.

Pest management

  • Bagging of fruits check development of post harvest diseases and fruit fly infestation.
  • If bagging has not been done, pre treatment of fruits is required for controlling post harvest diseases.
  • Harvested fruits should be dipped in 0.025 per cent Carbendazim in hot water (52±10C) for 10 minutes.
  • Fixing of wooden block methyl eugenol traps @ 10 traps per hectare commencing from first week of May to manage fruit fly

Ripening


Do not use calcium carbide, a banned chemical, for ripening of fruits.

  • Such fruits do not ripe uniformly and quality of fruits is inferior.
  • Calcium carbide is hazardous to health.
  • Ripe fruits with ethylene gas (100 ppm or 0.1 %) in airtight room by exposing them for 24 –48 hrs under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity

Alternatively, ripe the fruits with dip treatment of ethrel / ethephon solution (250–750 ppm) in hot water (52±20C) for 5 minutes.

  • The same solution could be used four times.
  • Premature fruits (fruits harvested up to 2 weeks prior to maturity) could be ripened to an acceptance quality by dipping the fruits in 750 ppm ethrel solution.
  • Less mature and mature fruits are ripened by dipping the fruits in 500 and 250 ppm ethrel solution, respectively.

Fruits ripen uniformly with attractive colour.

  • Fruits ripen within 4 – 8 days depending upon the maturity.
  • This technique is also useful for processing industries.
  • Sorting of ripe fruits is not required due to uniform ripening of fruits
  • Yield varies with varieties and spacing adopted.
  •  8 – 10 t/ha upto 15 years.
  •  15 – 20 t/ha from 15 – 20 years.

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