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Acid Lime Crop
Botanical Name -Citrus aurantifolia
Family – Rutaceae

Varieties

 

PKM 1, VRM 1 , Tahithi lime, Balaji (Tenali), Vikram, Rasraj, NRCC -7, NRCC -8 ,
Phule Sharbathi

 

Soil and Climate

Soil –

  • Citrus can grow in all types of soils.
  • Light Soils having good drainage are suitable for its cultivation.
  • pH range of soil should be 5.5-7.5.
  • They can also grow in slightly alkaline and acidic soils.
  • Light loam well drained soils are best for citrus cultivation.
  • A high water table for  permanent or fluctuating nature and low lying locations are unsuitable. 

Climate

The crop can be cultivated in both Tropical and subtropical climate

Season

December – February

 June – September


Propagation

  • Budded plants on Rough lemon or Rangpur lime rootstocks are good.
  • Since seeds are highly poly-embryonic and seedlings are true to type, propagation by seeds is also recommended.
  • Layering is adopted for VRM 1 Tahithi lime.


Planting

  • Land should be ploughed, cross ploughed and leveled properly.
  • Planting is done on terraces against slopes in hilly areas.
  • High density planting is also possible in such areas.

Spacing

  • Healthy seedlings are planted during June to December at 6 x 6 m spacing in 75
    cm x 75 cm x 75 cm pits.


Irrigation Schedule

  • Young plants need regular watering during post-monsoon period at an interval of 8-10 days and at 5-7 days during summer months.
  • Water is applied around the periphery of the tree in a ring and basin system (double ring) so that tree trunk should not come in direct contact with water.
  • Avoid water stagnation. Adopt drip system for new plantations.

Manures and Fertilizers per plant

Fertilizer requirement

Age of crop (Year) Well decomposed cow dung (kg/tree) Urea (gm/tree)
First to three year      5-20 100-300
Four to Six      25-50 400-500
Seven to Nine      60-90 600-800
Ten and above      100 800-1600

Nutrient requirement

  • 1-3 year old crop – cow dung @ 5-20 kg per Tree and Urea @100-300 gm per Tree.
  • 4-6 year old crop – cow dung @25-50 kg and Urea @100-300 gm per Tree.
  • 7-9 year old crop, apply Urea @ 600-800 gm per tree and  cowdung @ 60-90 kg per Tree.
  • 10 year old or above, apply cowdung @100 kg or Urea @ 800-1600 gm per tree.
  • Apply whole amount of cow dung during December month
  • whereas apply Urea in two parts, apply first of Urea in February, and second dose in April-May month.
  • At time of applying first dose of Urea, apply whole dose of SSP fertilizer.
  • If fruit drop is observed, to control excessive fruit drop, take spray of 2,4-D @10 gm in 100Ltr of water.
  • Take first spray in March end, then in April end. Repeat the spray in August and September end.
  • If cotton is planted in nearby field of citrus, avoid spraying of 2,4-D, instead take spray of GA3.

After Cultivation

  • Remove branches of main stem up to 45 cm from ground level.
  • Periodical removal of dried twigs along with one inch length of basal green wood and destroying them by burning should be done.
  • Spray Zinc sulphate @ 0.5% (500 g /100 lit of water) thrice in a year (March, July and October) after the emergence of new flushes.
  • The basins should be mulched with dry leaf waste or paddy husk with about 10 cm thickness so as to arrest weed growth and also to conserve soil moisture, thereby improving the fruit quality.

Intercropping

Legumes and vegetable crops can be raised during pre-bearing age

Growth Regulator

  • To increase fruit set, spray 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm (200 mg / 10 l) during
    flowering.
  • For fruit retention, spray 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm or NAA 30 ppm (300 mg / l) after fruitset (marble size).

Nutritional Deficiency

1.Nitrogen

Nitrogen

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Dull green, yellowish, smaller leaves.
  • Die back of twigs, thin and bushy appearance of tops with sparse bloom. Vein chlorosis.
  • New leaves are greater than older.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray urea 2% at 15 days interval.

2.Potassium

Potassium

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Slower growth, shedding of leaves at blossom tine.
  • New shoots poorly attached to twig.
  • Smaller leaves, twigs die peak, scorching of leaf tips, small brown resinous spots on leaf.
  • Small wrinkled spotted leaves. Small fruits, thin peel.
  • In mandarin – yellowing and bronzing of leaves become twisted, wrinkled and spindy twigs.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of KNO3 2% at fortnightly interval. Application of 200g N, 100g P2O5 and 200 g K2O / tree/year.

3.Boron

Boron

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Premature wilting, water soaked spots on leaves.
  • Premature shedding of leaves, bushing appearance curling of leaves, splitting and curling of veins.
  • Fruits with gum spots and lumpings, hand abnormal shape and small.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of borax @ 0.5%

4.Copper

Copper

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Reduced growth and dark green colour of leaves, twin led malformed leaves.
  • New leaves shriveled, bushy growth.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of CuSO4 each 0.5% at fortnightly interval.

5.Iron

Iron

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Thin leaves with interveinal chlorosis in young leaves.
  • Greein tinge at the base of mid rib.
  • Leaf size reduced. Later the leaves become pale or whitish and shed.
  • Die back symptom older leaves remain green, fruits hand, coarse light coloured.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5% twice at fortnight interval.

6.Manganese

Manganese

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Fine network of green veins as a light green background on young leaves. Leaf remains fairly green.
  • Dark green irregular bands on mature leaves, along the midrib.
  • White spots develop in interveinal area with die back symptom.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of 0.5% MnSO4 at fortnightly interval.

7.Zinc

Zinc

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Irregular and chlorite leaf spots, mottled leaf, small leaves, severe dieback of twigs.
  • The area near midrib and lateral veins remain green.
  • Terminal twigs with narrow small erect leaves. Small, thin skinned fruits.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray 2% ZnSO4 with 1% lime at fortnightly interval

Diseases

1) Citrus Canker : Xanthomonas campestris pv citri

Symptoms-

  • Plants have lesions on stems, leaves and fruits with brown, water-soaked margins.
  • Citrus canker bacteria can enter through plant’s stomata into the leaves.
  • Younger leaves are highly susceptible.
  • Lesions oozes bacterial cells which can be dispersed by blowing wind to healthy plants in area.

Management-

  • Contaminated equipment tends to spread disease to healthy plants.
  • Bacteria can stay viable in old lesions for several months.
  • It can be detected by appearance of lesions.
  • It can be controlled by cutting of effected branches, twigs.
  • Spraying of Bordeaux mixture @1%. Aqueous solution of 550 ppm, Streptomycin Sulphate is also helpful in controlling citrus canker.

2) Gummosis : Phytophthora parasitica

Gummosis in Fruit Trees - Backbone Valley Nursery

 Symptoms-

  • Exudation of gum from bark of tree is the characteristic symptom of gummosis disease.
  • Affected plant leaves turns to pale yellow in color.
  • Hardness masses of gum are common on stem and leaf surfaces.
  • In severe cases, bark may be destroyed by rotting and tree may dies.
  • Plant dies before the fruit matures .This disease is also called foot rot.

Management-

  • This disease can be managed through proper selection of site with proper drainage, use of resistant varieties etc.
  • Plant injuries should be avoided.
  • Drench the soil with 0.2% Metalaxyl MZ-72 + 0.5% trichoderma viride, which helps to control this disease.
  • Bordeaux mixture should be applied to plant upto 50-75 cm height from ground level at least once in a year.

3) Powdery mildew: 

Powdery mildew in citrus.: Acrosporium tingitaninum; Suntalajat Falful ko Kharane Rog, सुन्तलाजात फलफू लको खराने रोग : PlantwisePlus Knowledge Bank: Vol Pest Management Decision Guides, No null

  • White cottony powdery growth is noticed on all aerial plant parts.
  • Leaves tend to become pale yellow and crinkle.
  • Distorted margins are also seen.
  • Upper surface of leaves are more affected.
  • Young fruits drop off prematurely. Yield is reduced significantly. 

Management-

  • To control powdery mildew, affected plant parts should be removed and destroyed completely.
  • Spraying of Karathane 0.1% or Wettable Sulphur 0.2% twice at 15 days interval reduces  the disease incidence.

4) Black Spot :

Citrus black spot: declared pest | Agriculture and Food

Symptoms-

  • Black spot is a fungal disease.
  • Circular, dark spots on fruits are seen.

Management-

  • Copper spray in early spring should be sprayed on foliage helps to cure plants from black spots.
  • It should be repeated in 6 weeks again.

5) Collar Rot :

Collar Rot - Fruit Salad Trees

Symptoms-

  • Collar rot is also caused due to fungus.
  • This disease mainly affects the bark on tree trunk.
  • Bark begins to rot and forms a band just above ground surface, this band decay gradually and covers the whole trunk.
  • It is very severe in some cases that even the trees may die.
  • This is caused due to incorrect mulching, injury due to weeding, mowing etc.
  • Tree may lose its vigor. To protect trees from collar rot, cut and scrape away the soft, infected bark to clean the trunk of tree.

Management-

  • Mixture of copper spray or Bordeaux mixture should be painted on the affected part of the tree.
  • Remove all the weak, diseased and congested tree branches to ensure proper air circulation.

Plant Protection

1) Leaf miner : 

Citrus leafminer | Bugs For Bugs

Symptoms-

  • Larvae inside the upper or lower surface of young and newly emerged leaves are curled and look distorted.
  • Young trees show a reduction in growth due to leaf miner.
  • Best management for leaf miner is to leave it alone and let the natural enemies to feed upon them and parasitize their larvae.

Management

  • It can also be controlled by spraying Phosphomidon @1ml or Monocrotophos @1.5ml per 3-4 times fortnightly.
  • Pheromone traps are also available for detecting leaf minor moths.

2) Citrus Psylla :

Citrus Psylla Disease On Lemon Tree Leaf Stock Photo - Image: 27999318

Symptoms-

  • These are Juice sucking pests.
  • Damage is mainly caused by Nymphs.
  • It injects a plant toxin liquid which burns foliage and skin of fruit.
  • Leaves curl and fall off prematurely.

Management-

  • It can be controlled by pruning of diseased plants, burning them.
  • Spraying of Monocrotophos-0.025% or carbaryl- 0.1% can also be helpful.

3) Scale Insects : 

Citricola scale | Citrus Pests

Symptoms-

  • Citrus scale insects are small insects that suck sap from the citrus trees and fruits.
  • They do not have much mouth parts. Male citrus scale has a short life span.
  • There are mainly two types of scale on citrus plants armored scale and soft scales. 
  • Once dead, soft scale will fall from tree instead of remaining stuck.

Management-

  • They can be controlled with the introduction of indigenous parasitic wasps.
  • Neem oil is also effective against them.
  • Spraying of Parathion (0.03%) emulsion, dimethoate 150ml or malathion @0.1% are effective against scale control.

4) Aphids 

Aphids in citrus | Agriculture and Food

 Symptoms

  • They are small sap sucking pests.
  • Bugs are present on the underside of leaves.

Management-

  • Synthetic pyrethroids or pest oil can be used to control aphids and bugs.

5.Mealy bugs Citrus Mealybugs - The Daily GardenManagement

  • Debark the branches and apply methyl parathion paste.
  • Use sticky trap on the fruit bearing shoots at a length of 5 cm.
  • Single soil application of Phorate 10G @ 50g per tree around the base at the time of pruning is essential.
  • Release the predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri for controlling the pest.
  • Mark the mealy bug infested plants early in the season.
  • Make one to three releases per annum depending on the mealy bug populations.

Nematode Management

  •  Application of Carbofuran 3G @ 75 g/tree to control citrus nematodes in severe infestations.
  •  Application of 20 g Pseudomonas fluorescens formulation per tree at a depth of 15 cm and 50 cm away from the trunk once in four months.
  • Soil application of carbofuran 10G @ 2 g followed by drenching with metalaxyl plus mancozeb 72 WP @ 1% 50 ml/ cutting/ poly bag/ kg of nursery soil for citrus decline.

Citrus Root Nematode

Citrus nematode

  • Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20g per tree at a depth of 15 cm and 50 cm away from the trunk for the management of slow decline due to the citrus root nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans.
  • Soil application of carbofuran 10G @ 2g followed by drenching with metalaxyl plus mancozeb 72 WP @ 0.1% 50 ml/ cutting/ poly bag/ kg of nursery soil for citrus decline.

Harvesting

  • On attaining proper size, shape along with attractive color having TSS to Acid ratio of 12:1, lime fruits is ready for harvest.
  • Depending upon variety fruits are generally ready for harvesting in Mid- January to Mid- February.
  • Do harvesting at proper time as too early or too late harvesting will give poor quality.

Post Harvest

  • Harvested fruits are graded according to size and colour and packed in bamboo baskets or wooden crates lined with green foliage.
  • Treating the fruits with 4% wax emulsion followed by pre-packing in 200 gauge polythene bags with 1 % ventilation improves the shelf life for more than 10 days.

Yield

25 t /ha /year.