Botanical Name - Zea mays L.
Family - Poaceae

  • Maize (Zea mays L) is second rated grain used collectively in form of foodstuff or fodder.
  • Globally, maize is known as queen of cereals because it has highest genetic yield potential among the cereals.
  • Grains provides food items which are consumed in the form of starch, corn flakes also glucose.
  • It is also used as animal feed in poultry.
  • Maize can be cultivated in any soil as they require less fertile soil and various chemicals.
  • Moreover, it fetch less ripening span, 3 months, in comparison to paddy, which takes 145 days.
  • By growing maize, farmers can easily shield the deteriorating grade of soil , preserve 90% of water and 70% of potency as compared with paddy and can make more profit than wheat and paddy,” reported by vice chancellor, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.
  • It serves as basic raw material to thousands of industrial products like oil, starch, alcoholic beverages etc. Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, J & K and Punjab are major maize growing states.
  • AP and Karnataka is major producer of maize in south.

1.PMH 1:

  • Applicable for cultivation throughout the state, under irrigated conditions for kharif/spring and summer season.
  • It is long duration varieties, matures in 95 days.
  • Stem is sturdy and of purple color.
  • Average yield is about 21 qtl/acre.


  • Long duration variety.
  • Cultivated throughout the state under irrigated conditions kharif, spring and summer season.
  • It is medium tall plant with medium thick stem and resistant to lodging.
  • Matures in 95 days.
  • Average yield is 17.5 qtl/acre.


  • Medium duration variety, Matures in 85 days.
  • Grains are of orange color.
  • Gives average yield of 16 qtl/acre.


  • Short duration variety, mature in 83 days.
  • Cultivated under rainfed as well as under irrigated conditions.
  • This hybrid is tolerant to drought.
  • Ears are medium long with orange flint grains.
  • Average yield is about 16.5 qtl/acre.

5.JH 3459:

  • Short duration variety, mature in 84 days.
  • It is tolerant to drought and lodging.
  • It has orange flint grains with average yield of 17.5 qtl/acre.


  • It is drought tolerant early maturing (82 days) hybrid.
  • It gives average yield of 15-17 qtl/acre.


  • Short duration variety, mature in 82 days.
  • It has yellow- orange flint grains.
  • It gives average yield of 12 qtl/acre.

8.Punjab sathi 1: 

  • Matures in 70 days, it is a short duration summer season variety.
  • Tolerant to heat.
  • Average yield is about 9qtl/acre.

9.Pearl Popcorn: 

  • Applicable for cultivation throughout the state, under irrigated conditions.
  • It is composite variety of popcorn.
  • It has medium plant height.
  • Ears are thin, cylindrical with small round flint grains, Matures in 88 days.
  • Average yield is 12 qtl/acre.

10.Punjab sweet corn:

  • This variety is highly suitable for sweet corn on commercial basis.
  • Because of its developing and immature grains in green ears possess high sugar content.
  • Matures in 95-100 days.
  • Its green ears average yield is 50 qtl/acre.


  • Developed by Vivekananda Parvatiya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan, Almora.
  • With mean average yield of 2643 kg/acre.


  • Developed by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.
  • Tolerant to major diseases, average mean yield of this variety is 2697 kg/acre.

13.HQPM-1 Hybrid: 

  • Developed by Haryana Agricultural University.
  • Gives average yield of 2514 kg/acre.
  • It is resistant to major diseases like Maydis leaf blight (MLB) and Turcicum leaf blight (TLB).

14.J 1006: 

  • Developed by PAU, Ludhiana and released in 1992 for cultivation in Punjab.
  • It is resistant to Maydis blight, brown striped downy mildew and stem borer.

15.Pratap Makka Chari 6:

  • Developed by MPUA&T, Udaipur.
  • It is a medium tall variety, stem is strong, medium thick and resists lodging.
  • It matures in 90–95 days.
  • Its green fodder yield potential is 187–200 qtl/acre.
  • Private companies varieties

Pioneer 39V92 & 30R77, Pro Agro 4640, Monsanto Hi, Shell & Double, Shri Ram Genetic chemical Ltd.Bio 9690 & Raj Kumar, Kanchan Seed, Polo, Hybrid Corn & KH 121 (Sonalika), Mahyco MPM 3838. Zuari C. 1415, Ganga Kaveri GK 3017, GK 3057, Syngenta India Ltd NK 6240.

Other state varieties

16.PEEHM 5:

  • Pusa extra early hybrid makka.
  • It is tolerant to high temperature.
  • Suitable for sowing in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Gives average yield of 20 qtl/acre.

17.PC 1: 

  • Pusa composite 1, early maturing variety.
  • It give resistance to stalk rot, corn borer and leaf blight.
  • It gives average yield of 12 to 14 qtl/acre.

18.PC 2: 

  • Early maturing variety.
  • It give resistance to stalk rot, leaf blight, sheat blight and brown stripe downy mildew.
  • It give average yield of 14 qtl/acre.

19.PC 3:

  • Early to medium maturing variety.
  • It is tolerant to stem borer and give resistance to lodging and moisture stress.
  • It give average yield of 16 qtl/acre.

20.PC 4:

  • Early maturing composite.
  • It is tolerant to stem borer and give resistance to lodging and moisture stress.
  • It give average yield of 16 qtl/acre.


  • Fertile well-drained alluvial or simply red loams free of coarse elements and full off nitrogen are ideal soils for maize cultivation.
  • Maize can be grown on wide range of soils including loamy sand to clay loam.
  • Definitely depleted plains are effective suited to the cultivation, even though it grows up in various hilly zones equally.
  • Soils with fine organic matter containing good water holding capacity with pH ranging from 5.5-7.5 are required to increase yield.
  • Heavy clay soil is not suitable for cultivation.
  • Soil test is necessary to know deficiency of any nutrient in the soil.

Climate – 

Temperature -25-30 °C

Rainfall – 50-100cm

Sowing Temperature – 25-30 °C

Harvesting Temperature – 30-35 ° C

  • Time of sowing
    In kharif season, crop is sown in month of May end to June corresponding with the onset of monsoon.
  • Spring crops are sown during late February to end of march.
  • Plantation of baby corn can be done all the year round, except December and January.
  • Kharif and rabi season are best for sweet corn sowing.


  • Spacing
    To obtain higher yield along with resource-use efficiency, optimum plant spacing is the key factor.  
    1) For kharif maize : use spacing of 60 x 20 cm.
    2) Sweet corn : use spacing of 60 x 20 cm spacing.
    3) Baby corn: Use 60 x 20 cm or 60 x 15 cm spacing.
    4) Pop corn: Use 50 x15 cm spacing.
    5) Fodder: use spacing of 30 x10 cm spacing

    Sowing Depth
  • Seed should be sown at depth of 3-4 cm.
  • For sweet corn cultivation keep depth of sowing to 2.5 cm.
  • Method of sowing
    Sowing can be done manually by dibbling seeds or by mechanically with help of tractor drawn ridger seed drill.

Seed Rate
Purpose, seed size, season, plant type, sowing method these factor affect seed rate.
1) For kharif maize : use seed rate of 8-10 kg/acre,
2) Sweet corn : use seed rate of 8 kg/acre
3) Baby corn: 16 kg/acre seed rate.
4) Pop corn: 7 kg/acre seed rate.
5) Fodder: 20 kg/acre seed rate.

  • Pea can be taken as intercrop in maize plant.
  • For that take one row of pea between maize crops.
  • In autumn sugarcane and maize can also be intercropped.
  • Sow one row of maize plant after two row of sugarcane.
  • Seed Treatment
    To protect seeds from soil borne diseases and insect pest, seed treatment is necessary.
  • To protect seeds from downy mildew, treat the seed with Carbendazim or Thiram@2gm/kg of seeds.
  • After chemical treatment, treat seed with Azospirillum@600gm+ rice gruel.
  • After treatment shade dry seeds for 15-20 minutes.
  • Azosprillum helps in fixing of atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. Or use any one fungicides from below
Fungicide nameQuantity (Dosage per Kg seed)
Imidacloprid 70WS5ml
Carbendazim + Captan (1:1)2gm
  • For cultivation selected land should be free from weeds and remains of previously grown crop.
  • Plough the land to bring the soil to fine tilth.
  • It may take 6 to 7 plough.
  • Apply 4-6 tons/acre of well decomposed cow dung across the field, also apply 10 Azospirillum packets in field.
  • Prepared furrow and ridges with 45 cm to 50 cm spacing. 
  • Apply irrigation immediately after sowing.
  • Based upon soil type, on third or fourth day give lifesaving irrigation.
  • In rainy season, if rain is satisfactory then it is not needed.
  • Avoid water stagnation in early phase of crop and provide good drainage facility.
  • Crop required less irrigation during early stage, 20 to 30 days after sowing afterwards it required irrigation once in a week.
  • Seedling, knee height stage, flowering and grain feeling are the most sensitive stage for irrigation.
  • Water stress at this stage cause huge loss in yield.
  • In case of water scarcity, irrigate alternate furrow.
  • It will save water also.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)


Nutrient value (kg/acre)


(Apply fertilizer based on soil test result).

  • Apply Super phosphate@75-150 kg, 75-110 kg of Urea and 15-20 kg of Potash (apply only if soil show its deficiency) per acre maize crop.
  • Apply whole amount of SSP and MOP and one third of Urea at time of sowing.
  • Apply remaining dose of nitrogen at knee height stage and pre tasseling stage.
  • Zinc and magnesium deficiency are common in maize crop.
  • To overcome this deficiency, apply Znso4@8kg/acre as basal dose.
  • Along with zinc and magnesium deficiency, iron deficiency is also observed.
  • Due to this whole plant gives yellow appearance.
  • To overcome this deficiency, apply micro-nutrients mixture@25/acre mixed with 25 kg of sand after sowing the maize seed.

First weeding : 15 days after sowing.
Earthing up and top dressing : 25 days after sowing.
De-tasseling (removal of male flowers) : 40 – 45 days before pollen shedding

1) Bacterial Stalk Rot :

Bacterial Stalk Rot | USU


  • The stalk near the ground become water-soaked with brownish discolouration and are easily breakable and give unpleasant smell.


  • Avoid water logging in field and provide proper drainage.
  • Apply Bleaching powder containing 33% chlorine@ 2-3 kg/acre as soil drench at pre-flowering stage.

2) Turcicum leaf blight (TLB)

Turcicum leaf blight on maize | Maize leaf showing elongated… | Flickr


  • This is one of the most important diseases in Northern and North-eastern hills and peninsular India and is caused by Exserohilum turcicum.
  • If infection take place at silking stage then significant economic damages observed.
  • Early symptoms show slightly oval, water soaked, small spots produced on leaves.
  • First appeared on lower leaves in severe infestation complete plant give burning appearance.
  • If not controlled at proper time, it has the potential to cause yield reduction up to 70%
  • Management-
  • To control take spray of Mancozeb or Zineb @2-4 gm/litre at 10 days interval after first appearance of the disease.

3) Maydis leaf blight (MLB):

MAYDIS LEAF BLIGHT in MAIZE : Causes and Remedy


  • MLB is caused by Bipolaris maydis and generally appears in warm tropical and sub-tropical areas to wet temperate climate.
  • Young lesions are small and diamond shaped.
  • As they mature, they elongate.
  • Lesions may coalesce, producing a complete “burning” of large areas of the leaves.


  • Application of 2-4 sprays of Dithane M-45 or Zineb @ 2.0-2.5 gm/litre of water at 7-10 days interval from the first appearance of disease controls the spread of pathogen.

4) Brown stripe downy mildew :

Brown Stripe Downy Mildew of Maize | Pests & Diseases


  • Lesions start developing on lower leaves as narrow chlorosis or yellow stripes, 3-7 mm wide, with well-defined margin and are delimited by the veins.
  • The stripes later become reddish to purple.
  • Lateral development of lesions causes severe striping and blotching.


  • Grow resistant varieties.
  • Do Seed treatment with Metalaxyl@6gm/kg of seeds.
  • Remove infected plant and destroyed away from the field.
  • Spray with Metalaxyl@1gm/Ltr or Metalaxyl + Mancozeb@2.5gmLit of water.

5) Post flowering stalk rot:

Stalk Rot Diseases in Nebraska Corn Fields | CropWatch | University of ...


  • It is one of the most destructive diseases and is caused by complex association of multiple pathogens.
  • It affects roots, crown region and lower internodes of crops.


  • If incidence of this disease is observed, then minimize use of potassium fertilizer.
  • Follow crop rotation.
  • Do not give water stress at flowering stage.
  • Application of bio-control agent such as Trichoderma formulation in furrow @10gm/kg of FYM at 10 days prior to sowing provides good control.

6) Pythium stalk rot : 

Pythium Stalk Rot of Corn | Crop Protection Network


  • In this disease, basal internodes become soft, dark brown water soaked, causing the plants lodge.
  • Damaged internodes commonly twist before the plants lodge.


  • Remove remains of previous crop and keep field clean before sowing.
  • Maintain optimum plant population in field.
  • Do Soil drenching with Captan at basal internode (5-7 week growth stage)@1gm/Ltr of water.

7.Common Rust: Puccinia sorghi  

Common Corn Rust stock photo - Minden Pictures


  • Minute flecks are appeared on both sides of leaves.
  • Cool, warm and moist weather (15 – 25o C)
  • Circular to elongate cinnamon brown, powdery, erumpent pustules on both leaf surfaces
  • As the crop matures brownish black pustules develop
  • In severe cases infection spreads to sheath and other parts


  • Remove the alternate hosts .
  • Collect the remains of the crop and destroy by burning or burying
  • Foliar spray of kresoxim-methyl 44.3% SC @ 1 ml/l or tebuconazole @ 1ml/l orchlorothalonil or mancozeb 2 ml/l at 35 and 50 DAS

8.Aspergillus rot – Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection



  • Appears as an olive-green mould on the kernels from the tip of the ear
  • Fungus produces a mycotoxin known as aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1 and G2)
  • Aflatoxin affects grain quality and marketability, as well as livestock health if the grain is consumed


  • Maize must be dried to below 14 percent moisture
  • Reduce the stress to the crop during harvesting
  • Avoid wound in kernels by insects/birds
  • Appropriate fertility to the crop


Nitrogen deficiency in maize (Photo credit: IITA/Jonathan … | Flickr

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Chlorosis occurs in older leaves
  • Appearance of golden yellow color near the tips
  • Margins progresses both side.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of 0.5% urea (5 g /lit) for twice at 10 days interval.


Phosphorus deficiency is one of the more common nutrient deficiencies ...

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Stunted plant growth and occurrence of pink pigmentation in the older leaves.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of DAP 2%.


potassium deficiency | Article Tags | Purdue University Pest&Crop ...

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Older leaves show yellow or yellowish green streaks
  • Scorching of leaf tips and margins.
  • Shortened internodes.
  • Plants become weak and fall down
  • Tip end of cobs are poorly filled. .

Correction Measure

  • Foliar application of 1% KCl or K2SO4 (10 g / litre of water) two times at 15 days interval.


Visual indicators of calcium and boron deficiency in corn - John Kempf

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Young leaf tips stick together form sword-like projections.
  • Serrated leaf edges, leaves brittle, brown, sticky near margins and turn brown.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar application of CaSO4 2% twice.


Magnesium Deficiency - MSU Extension Soil Fertility | Montana State ...

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Deficiency appear first on older leaves, irregular necrotic spots on tips and margins, leaves become brittle and turn brown.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of MgSO4 2%.


Managing Sulfur Deficiency In Corn - CropLife

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Deficiency appears in upper leaves and emerging leaves appear as pale yellow.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of MgSO4@1%


Boron Deficiency in Maize | Plant Disease LibraryBoron Deficiency in Corn | U.S. Borax | U.S. Borax

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Abnormal leaf and cobs .

Correction Measure

  • Foliar application of mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) 1% (10 g / litre of water) two times at 15 days interval.


Iron Deficiency | Pests & Diseases

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Deficiency appears first in newly emerging leaves. 
  • Interveinal tissue turns pale yellow with green veins chlorotic pattern uniformly leaves turn yellow or white. 
  • Newly formed leaves exhibit chlorotic symptoms and the entire crop show bleached appearance.

Correction Measure

  • Soil application of 20-25 Kg FeSO4 or foliar spray of 1% FeSO4 at weekly interval


Copper deficiency and frost damage

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Younger leaf tips turn brown roll up and break

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of CuSO4 @ 0.2%


Manganese Deficiency on Corn as Related to Soil Organic Matter | Weekly ...

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Deficiency appears first in younger leaves. 
  • Leaves pale color in a streaked pattern and long narrow lesions on leaves.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of MnSO4@2%


Zinc deficiency in maize plant. | Download Scientific Diagram

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Leaves have yellow streaks or chlorotic striping between veins.
  • White colour band arises from base to tip of the leaf.
  • New leaves are white in colour known as “white bud”.
  • Shortened internodes with rosette appearance.
  • Unfolding of young leaves .

Correction Measure

  • Foliar application of 0.5% ZnSO4 (5 g / litre of water) two times at 15 days interval..

1) Stalk borer or stem borer : Chilo partellus

Eco-friendly Management of Major Pests of Maize in North East India ...


  • Chilo partellus, commonly known as stalk borer that appears throughout the monsoon time period.
  • It is a serious bug all over the nation.
  • Chilo lays eggs 10-25 nights after germination on inferior portion of the leaf.
  • The larva gets into in the whorl and then triggers deterioration in the leaf and cause shot hole.
  • Larva of stem borer is yellowish brown with a brown head.
  • For stem borer, release egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis@1,00,000/acre coinciding egg laying period.
  • Three releases at weekly interval are desirable. Third release is to be accompanied with larval parasitoid Cotesia flavipes @ 2000/acre.
  • Mix Phorate 10%CG@4 kg /acre or Carbaryl 4%G@1kg/acre with sand to make up total quantity of 10 kg and apply in the leaf whorls on the 20th day of sowing. Or
  • Spray insecticide like Carbaryl 50WP@1 kg/acre on the 20th day of sowing or Dimethoate 30% EC@200ml/acre.
  • Spray of Chlorpyriphos@1-1.5ml/Ltr of water at 10-12 days after germination provides good control.

2) Pink Borer – Sesamia inference 

Pink Stem Borer Management in Maize: Symptoms, Treatment, Chemical ...


  • It inference arises in times of the winter season mainly in peninsular India.
  • Larvae of the pink borer cause damage by feeding on all parts of maize plant except roots.
  • The larvae form circular or “S” shaped tunnels filled with excreta inside the stem and, also show exit holes on the surface.
  • In case of severe damage, breaking of stem occurred.


  • Seed treatment with Carbofuran (40F) 5% W/W @ 2.5g/kg of seed was also found effective.
  • The Chilo can be regulated by introduction of 4 Trichocards (Trichogramma chilonis) per acre at ten days after germination.
  • Light and pheromone traps can be used to assess the incidence of adult moths.

3) Corn worm :

Corn earworm - Stock Image - B265/0071 - Science Photo Library


  • Larva feeds on silk and developing grains.
  • Larva of corn worms shows colour variation from greenish to brown.
  • It has dark brown grey lines on the body with lateral white lines.


  • Set up pheromone traps at @5/acre.
  • Apply Carbaryl 10D @10kg/acre or Malathion 5D@10kg/acre on 3rd and 18th day after panicle emergence.

4)Shoot bug: 

A new pest for maize farmers - Farming UK News


  • Shoot bug laid eggs inside leaf tissue and covered with a white waxy substance.
  • Due to infestation plant become unhealthy, stunted and yellow.
  • The leaves wither from top to downwards.
  • The midribs of the leaves turn red due to egg-laying and may dry up subsequently.
  • If infestation is observed take spray of Dimethoate@2ml/Ltr of water.

5) Termites:

Factsheet - Termites


  • To control apply Fipronil@8kg/acre followed by light irrigation.
  • If the termite incidence is in patches, than spot application of Fipronil@2-3kg granuled/plant should be done. Keep cleanliness in field.

6) Shoot fly :

Maize Shoot Fly Management: Symptoms, Treatment, Chemical, Biological, Natural, and Organic ControlTNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection


  • It is a major pest of South India but sometime observed in spring and summer crop in North India.
  • It causes damage at seedling stage and causes drying of seedling or dead heart.


  • To control shoot fly infestation, Plough land after harvesting of previous crop also remove stubbles and remains of previously harvested crop.
  • Do seed treatment with Imidacloprid @ 6ml/kg of seeds, it provides good control of the shoot fly.
  • Soil application of Phorate 10%CG@5kg/acre at the time of sowing.
  • Spray any one of pesticide like Dimethoate 30%EC@300 ml/acre or Methyl demeton 25%EC@450ml/acre.

7) Fall armyworm : 

Deteriorating effect of fall armyworm attack on kharif maize - ICAR ...Biosecurity alert: Fall armyworm detected in Australia | AUSVEG


  • They young larvae damages the crop by scrapping the leaf surface and ends up making them papery and the young larvae feed themselves by eating the leaves which results in round to oblong holes.
  • Larvae can be identified by seeing white-coloured inverted Y-shaped mark on the head and four spots arranged in square pattern at the end of the tail.


  • Try to sow the crop at recommended time.
  • For 20 days old crop, spray coragen@0.4ml/ltr water or Delegate@0.5ml/ltr water.
  • Thereafter for older crop, the amount of dosage and water needs to be increased. 
  • Sweet corn must be moved quickly from the field to packing sheds, where it should be rapidly sorted, packed, and cooled.
  • It is generally packed in wire bound wooden crates, which can hold from 4 to 6 dozen ears, depending on the size of the crate or ears.
  • The picking of cobs can be done from 50 days after sowing.
  • Crop duration is 65 days.
  • Tender cob (baby corn) : 6660 kg/ha
  • Green fodder : 32.2 t/ha