Grand Naine, Robusta, Dwarf Cavendish, Rasthali, Vayal vazhai, Poovan, Nendran, Red Banana, Karpooravalli, Udhayam, CO 1, Matti, Sannachenkadali and Ney poovan.
Cavendish groups are generally preferred for export.
Monthan, Nendran, Vayal vazhai, Ash Monthan and Chakkia.
Virupakshi, Sirumalai, Namarai, Red Banana, Manoranjitham (Santhana vazhai) and Ladan.
Well drained loamy soils are suitable. Alkaline and saline soils should be avoided.
Wet lands: Feb – April: Poovan, Rasthali, Monthan, Karpooravalli and Ney poovan
April – May: Nendran and Robusta
January – February and November – December.
January – February and August – September.
April – May (lower Palani hills); June – August (Sirumalai)
No preparatory cultivation is necessary.
2 – 4 ploughings.
One deep mammutti digging.
Remove scrub jungle and construct contour stone walls.
Place the suckers at ground level and earth up.
Garden land, Padugai and Hill Banana: Dig pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm in size. The pits are refilled with topsoil, mixed with 10 kg of FYM, 250 g of Neem cake.
Variety Spacing No. of plants / ha
Garden land Robusta, Nendran, Dwarf Cavendish 1.8 x 1.8 m 1.5 x 1.5 m 3086 4444
Wet land Poovan,Monthan, Rasthali,Neyvannan, Ney poovan 2.1 x 2.1 m 2267
Hill Virupakshi (Sirumalai), Namarai and Ladan 3.6 x 3.6 m 750
(When mixed with coffee)
High density planting system (HDP)
Adopt high density planting for higher productivity – Plant 3 suckers / pit at a spacing of 1.8 x 3.6 m (4600 plants / ha) for Cavendish varieties and 2 m x 3 m for Nendran(5000 plants / ha).
Details N P K
(g / plant / year)
Varieties other than Nendran 110* 35* 330*
Nendran 150 90 300
Wet land 210 35 450
Nendran, Rasthali 210 50 390
Poovan,Robusta 160 50 390
After forming semi circular basins on uphill side, apply 375 g of 40:30:40 NPK mixture, plus 130 g muriate of potash per clump per application during October, January and April. Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria 20 g each at planting and 5th month after planting preceding
chemical fertilizer application.
Apply N as neem-coated urea. Apply N and K in 3 splits on 3rd, 5th and 7th month, Phosphorus at 3rd month of planting. Apply Arbuscular mycorrhiza (250 g/plant), phosphate solubilising bacteria (50 g/plant), Azospirillum (50 g/plant) and Trichoderma harzianum (50g/plant) at the time of planting. Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria again five months after planting (This should be applied prior to chemical fertilizer application).
For HDP with three suckers, apply 2.25 times of recommended dose per clump
For Tissue culture banana, apply 50% extra fertilizers at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th month after planting.
For maximizing productivity follow fertigation technique – Apply 25 litres of water / day + 200:30:300 g N: P2O5: K2O / plant using water soluble fertilizers.
For economizing the cost of fertilizers, fertigate using normal fertilizers (Urea and Muriate of potash) with 50% of the recommended dose along with recommended dose of phosphorus as basal at 2nd month after planting. Fertigate at weekly intervals as per the following schedule:
Weeks after planting N (%) P2O5 (%) K2O (%)
9-18 (10 weeks) 30 100 20
19-30 (12 weeks) 50 — 40
31-42 (12 weeks) 20 — 32
43-45 (3 weeks) — — 8
Total 100 100 100
Mulching with 100µm degradable polythene sheet immediately after planting conserves soil moisture and also suppresses weed growth. Surface digging and earthing up of soil at bi-monthly intervals facilitates better root system. Desuckering should be done at monthly intervals. Removal of dried leaves at periodical intervals reduces the disease spread. At the time of bunch emergence, prop the plants using bamboo or casuarina poles. After the completion of female phase, remove the male bud for better fruit development. After opening of the last hand, withered styles and perianth to be removed to avoid finger tip disease.
Bunch thinning i.e., removal of one to two small bottom hands from the bunch (keeping only 7 to 8 hands) facilitates uniform bunch development and this practice is recommended for export purpose. Cover the peduncle with flag leaf to prevent main stalk end rot. Cover the bunch with degradable polythene sleeves (2 – 4 % ventilation) or with white colour non-woven UV stabilized polypropylene sleeves to avoid sunscald and to produce quality bunch. After harvesting, the pseudostem should be cut leaving a stump of about 0.6m height to nourish the developing daughter sucker.
(Source: Banana Expert System, TNAU Agritech portal)
Apply or sprinkle carbofuran 3G 33g/sucker at the time of planting.
Remove dried leaves periodically and keep the plantation clean.
Remove the side suckers up to eighth month and destroy.
Do not dump infested materials in the manure pit. Infested trees should be uprooted, chopped into pieces and burnt.
Trap and kill adult weevils by chopping pseudostem chopped into small pieces.
Banana aphid: Apply any one of the following insecticides
Carbofuran 3G @166g /plant
Dimethoate 30EC 1.0 ml/l.
Methyl demeton 25 EC 2.0ml/l.
The Banana Aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Bunchy-top virus disease.
The spray may be directed towards the crown and pseudostem base upto ground level at 21 days interval at least thrice.
To prevent the disease,
i) Use virus-free suckers
ii) Paring and pralinage: Pare the corm and sprinkle 40 g of carbofuran 3 G over the corm (Before sprinkling, corm should be dipped in mud slurry).
iii) Destroy virus affected plants.
Thrips: Spray dimethoate 30 EC 1.0ml/l.
Lace wing bugs:
Spray any of the following insecticides:
Dimethoate 30 EC 1.0ml/l.
Methyl demeton 25 EC 1.0ml/l.
Quinalphos 25EC 4.0ml/l.
Pre-treat the suckers with 40 g of carbofuran 3G. If pre-treatment is not done, apply 40g of carbofuran around each plant one month after planting (refer selection and pretreatment for alternative technology). Then grow sunnhemp after 45th day and incorporate one month later. Press mud application @ 15 t per ha one month after planting and neem cake 1.5 t per ha one month after planting. Intercrop with marigold @ 4:1 ratio. Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) liquid formulation @ 4 lit/ha @ 2nd , 4th and 6th month after planting through drip system to manage panama wilt and nematode complex
Selection and pre-treatment of suckers
Select sword suckers of 1.5 to 2.0 kg weight, free from diseases and nematodes. Trim the roots and decayed portion of the corm, cut the pseudostem leaving 20 cm from the corm and grade the suckers to size. To avoid wilt disease, infected portions of the corm may be pared, dipped for 5 minutes in carbendazim 0.1% solution (1 g in 1 l of water) solution for Rasthali, Monthan, Neyvannan, Virupakshi and other wilt
Pralinage with 40 g of carbofuran 3 CG granules per sucker (dip the corm in slurry solution of 4 parts clay plus 5 parts water and sprinkle carbofuran to control nematodes).
Sow sunnhemp on 45th day; incorporate it after about a month. This operation reduces nematode build up.
Sigatoka leaf spot
Remove affected leaves and burn
Spray carbendazim @ 1 g/l or benomyl @ 1 g/l or mancozeb @ 2 g/l or copper oxychloride @ 2.5 g/l or ziram @ 2 ml/l or chlorothalonil @ 2 g/l at monthly interval from November onwards
Alternatively spray propiconazole @ 1 ml/l or 0.5 ml/l along with petroleum based mineral oil @ 10 ml/l or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 0.5% three times at 15 days interval to control sigatoka leaf spot incidence. Always add 5 ml of wetting agent like Sandovit, Triton AE, Teepol etc. per 10 l of spray fluid.
Spray pyraclostrobin 133 g/l + epoxiconazole e 50g/l SE @ 3 g/l or tebuconazole 50%+ trifloxystrobin 25% WG @ 300 g/ha
Panama Disease (Fusarium wilt)
Uproot and destroy severely affected plants
Apply lime at 1 – 2 kg in the pits after removal of the affected plants
Corm injection: Remove a small portion of soil to expose the upper portion of the corm. Make an oblique hole at 45° angle to a depth of 10 cm. Immediately insert a gelatin capsule containing 60 mg of carbendazim or of 50 mg of Pseudomonas fluorescens or inject 3 ml of 2 % carbendazim solution into the hole with the help of ‘corm injector‘ on 2nd, 4th and 6th months after planting
Apply press mud at 5 kg per plant to reduce the wilt incidence or apply Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1) liquid formulation @ 4 l/ha at 2nd, 4th and 6th months after planting through drip system to manage panama wilt and nematode complex.
Cigar end rot
CIB recommendation: Spray mancozeb 75% WP @1.5-2.0 kg/ha
Use virus-free suckers for planting
The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of bunchy-top virus disease
Destroy virus affected plants by inserting a gelatin capsule containing 200 mg 2,4 – D into the corm 7 cm deep using capsule applicator or inject 5 ml 2,4 – D solution (125 gm/lit of water) into the pseudostem by using the injection gun. The plant collapses and topples in 3 – 5 days
Apply carbofuran 3G @ 166 g /plant or spray dimethoate 30EC @ 1 ml/l or methyl demeton 25 EC @ 2 ml/l to control vector
The spray may be directed towards crown and pseudostem base upto ground level at 21 days interval at least thrice.
Kottaivazhai in Poovan: Spray 2,4 – D @ 25 ppm within 20 days after opening of last hand (1g/ 40 lit / 200 bunches) or 1.2 g of sodium salt of 2,4 – D dissolved in 40 lit of water for 200 bunches.
The bunches will be ready for harvest after 12 to 15 months of planting
Poovan & Rasthali : 40 – 50 t / ha
Monthan : 30 – 40 t / ha
Ney Poovan : 30 – 35 t / ha
Robusta : 50 – 60 t / ha
Grand Naine : 70 – 80 t / ha
Grand Naine uner HDP : 115-130 t / ha
Growing Districts: Coimbatore, Erode, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli, Trichy, Vellore, Kanyakumari and Karur districts
Major Markets in Tamil Nadu: Trichy, Coimbatore, Theni
Preferred Varieties and Hybrids: Grand Naine, Dwarf Cavendish, Robusta, Rasthali, Poovan, Nendran, Red Banana, Ney Poovan, Pachanadan, Monthan, Karpuravalli, Neyrannan.
Grade Specification: The hands are graded based on the number and size of fingers in each hand. Over ripe and injured fruits are discarded.
Banana is sent to the local market as bunches.