Botanical Name - Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.
Family - Rhamnaceae

  • Indian jujube or Ber also known as poor man fruit is hardy fruit crop suitable for arid region.
  • Ber is rich source of Protein, Vitamin C and minerals.
  • It is cultivated through out the country. Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil nadu and Andhra Pradesh are major Ber growing states.
  • It is a common and fourth important fruit crop (after kinnow, mango, gauva) of Punjab state.

1) Umran :

  • Fruits are of oval shape with smooth and glossy skin.
  • Fruits are of golden yellow color and on maturity it changes to chocolate brown.
  • It gets mature in March end to Mid-April.
  • Gives average yield of 150-200 kg per tree.   

2) Kaithli : 

  • Fruits are of medium size, oblong, with smooth skin and of greenish yellow color. Ready to harvest in March end.
  • Fruits are of sweet in test.
  • It gives average yield of 75 kg per Tree.
  • Get affected with powdery mildew disease.

  • 3)ZG 2:
  • Trees are of spreading type.
  • Fruits are of medium size, oblong and of bright green color on ripening. Sweet in taste.
  • It is resistive to powdery mildew disease.
  • Ready to harvest in March End.
  • It gives average yield of 150 kg per tree.

    4) Wallaiti
  • Medium to large size fruits with oval shape.
  • On maturity, color of fruit changes to golden yellow color.
  • Pulp is soft with TSS from 13.8 to 15%.
  • It gives average yield of 114 kg fruits per tree.

5) Sanaur 2: 

  • Fruits are of large size, skin is smooth with golden yellow color.
  • Sweet in taste having TSS 19%.
  • Resistant to powdery mildew.
  • Ready to harvest in second fortnight of March.
  • It gives average yield of 150 kg per tree.

6) Balvant: 

  • It is an early variety and matures in mid-November.
  • It gives an average yield of 121 kg per tree. 

7) Neelam :

  • It is a moderate maturing variety and matures in end-November.
  • It gives an average yield of 121 kg per tree. 
  • 8)Banarsi:
  • It is a mid-season variety.
  • Trees are 8-12 M tall. fruits globose oblong to long in shape with tapering stylar end.
  • Unripe fruits are green in colour.
  • After ripening they turn to golden yellow.
  • It has performed well under Tamil Nadu condition.
  • Yield ranges from 100- 110kg/tree/year.
Other state varieties:


  • High yielding, early maturing variety suitable for dry areas.
  • Fruits are round, greenish yellow in color.

Banarasi Kadaka




Soil –

  • It can cultivated on wide range of soil like from shallow to deep, from gravely and sandy to clay soil.
  • It can also grow on marginal and soil that are unfit for cultivation.
  • It can withstand in saline, alkaline soil also in waterlogging soil to some extent.
  • Deep sandy loamy soils with good drainage capacity are ideal soil for ber cultivation.

Climate –

Temperature – 15-40°C

Rainfall – 300-400

Sowing Temperature – 15-20°C , 30-37°C

Harvesting Temperature- 30-40°C , 15-20°C

‘T’ budding and Seed Propagation

  • Ber is propagated by ‘T’ budding or inverted ‘T’ budding on seedling rootstock of
    Z.jujuba, Z. xylocarpa and Z. rotundifolia.
  • Fruits of wild species are taken; seeds are extracted and soaked in 17% salt solution to remove the ill filled ones which float.
  • The seeds which sink are taken and soaked in con. H2SO4 for 5 minutes washed and soaked for 48 hours in cold water.
    Then the seeds can be sown in the poly bags (25 x 15 cm) of 300 gauge thickness.
  • The seeds take 10-15 days for germination.
  • Since the development tap root system is very fast in ber as well as in wild species, when the seedlings are with two leaves they are transplanted in the main field

Time of sowing

  • Transplanting is carried out in February-March or August-September.
  • Defoliate the plant while lifting from nursery for transplantation purpose.

Spacing of 7.5 x 7.5 m is used for planting.

Sowing Depth

  • Before planting dig pit of 60 x 60 x 60 cm and kept open in sun for 15 days.
  • They fill this pit with mixture of soil and cowdung.
  • Then transplant budded plant in it.
  • Established trees generally not required frequent irrigation.
  • When plant is in dormant stage, no irrigation is required.
  • For young trees, irrigation should be done once in a work.
  • As the trees grow older, it can restricted once in 15 to 20 days.
  • At the time of flowering and fruiting, there should not be any moisture stress.
  • At fruit development stage irrigation is essential.
  • At this stage apply irrigation with interval of 3-4 weeks depending upon weather condition.
  • Stop irrigation in second fortnight of March.
  • In rainfed condition, rain water harvest can be done by forming a saucer basin giving a 0.1% slope towards the trunk of the tree from a distance of 3 M.
  • Spray with Diuron @ 1.2 kg /acre as pre-emergence herbicide in first fortnight of August.
  • The weeds can be controlled as post emergence by Glyphosate @ 1.2Ltr/acre or Paraquat @ 1.2 Ltr /acre in 200Ltr of water when weeds are 15-20cm in height.

Fertilizer Requirement (Kg/tree)

Age of crop


Well decomposed cow dung



(in gm)

First year20200
Second year40400
Third year60600
Fourth year80800
Fifth and above


  • Apply 20kg/tree Well Decomposed Cowdung for 1 year old crop along with Urea@200gm/tree.
  • Increase dose of Cowdung by 20 kg and Urea by 200 gm for two year old crop, i.e Cowdung@ 40 kg and Urea@400gm.
  • Keep increasing cowdung quantity by 20 kg and Urea dose by 200 gm as age of crop increases.
  • Apply whole amount of Cow dung in May month.
  • Apply Urea in two equal parts, First dose should be given in July-August and second dose is applied at after fruit set stage.

Proper and regular annual training and pruning is necessary.


Creating Curved Bamboo Stakes

  • For young plant, a support should be provided by bamboo stakes.
  • In the first year, all the branches arising upto 75 cm-1M should be removed so that a straight trunk can be developed.
  • Above this 3-5 primary branches should be developed so as to have a balanced frame work in all directions.
  • In the second year, on each primary branch, 3-4 well distributed secondary branches can be allowed, and during third year final frame work should be decided.


The Different Pruning Techniques, and Why Every Gardener Should Know Them

  • Start it from Nursery stage.
  • In nursery, ensure that plant having single stem.
  • After transplanting, in field keep head clean upto 30-45 cm with 4-5 strong branches. Prune lower branches and prevent them from spreading on ground.
  • Remove disease, thin, dry and broken branches of previous season.
  • Pruning is carried out when plants are in dormant state i.e. from second fortnight of May.

1) Fruit Fly : Carpomyia vesuviana

PEST Affecting The Fruits - GUAVA, BER, JACK AND PINEAPPLE - Pest ...Fruit Fly Serving As An Indicator For Distinctive Fat Storage In Males ...


  • The flies puncture the young developing fruits by inserting their ovipositor and lays eggs singly. .
  • Females lay eggs below epidermis of young fruits
  • Later on maggots feed on pulp afterward fruits starts rotting and get drop.
  • The affected fruits become misshapen and their growth is retarded


  • Collect infested fruits and destroy them
  • Spray Monocrotophos (0.04%) or Rogar 30EC(0.06%).
  • Take spray of Dimethoate@500 ml /300 ltr of water in February-March month.
  • Cultivate Ber orchard soil during April-May and apply 10% BHC to destroy pupae.
  • Grow fruitfly tolerant varieties like Umran, Sanaur
  • 15 days before picking, stop spraying of Dimethoate.

2) Leaf Eating Caterpillar : Euproctis freterna

Caterpillars eating stock photo. Image of panama, tropical - 42103118


They feed on leaves and tender fruits and thus affect fruit quality.


  • At initial stage of infestation, collect caterpillar with hand and destroyed them.
  • Take spray of Carbaryl@750gm/200Ltr of water.
  • Dust 10% BHC.

3.Bark eating caterpillar: Inderbela quadrinotata

How to Get Rid of Bark Eating Caterpillar?


  • The caterpillar maks holes in the trunk while feeding.
  • Affected trees become stunted and yield potential is reduced.

Remove frassy galleries and paint the bark with 0.05% monocrotophos 40 EC.

 4. Ber beetle or leaf chafer:  Adorentus pallers

Garden fruit chafer | Project Noah

  • Beetles feed on leaves mainly during night.
  • The leaves become just like a sieve.
  • Management :
  • Spray with one kg carbaryl in 300 litres of water.
  • Use light traps

1.Powdery mildew: Oidium erysiphoides f. sp. zizyphi


  • The developing young leaves show a white powdery mass causing them to shrink and defoliate.
  • Small, white powdery growth appear on the young fruits which later enlarge and coalesce and final turn brown to dark brown.
  • In severe cases, the whole fruit surface gets covered with the powdery mass.
  • Affected young fruits drop off prematurely Matured fruits turn rusty. Sometimes the whole crop is rendered unmarketable.


  • Spraying of dinocap 0.05 per cent or wettable sulphur 0.25 per cent should be done during first and third weeks of November or when the fruit attains pea size.
  • Triton-AE or Teepol or Sandovit may be added for adhesion.
  • Take spray of wettable Sulphur @ 250 gm /100 ltr of water during flowering stage. If necessary repeat the spray.

2.Alternaria leaf spot: Alternaria chartarum


  • The disease is characterised by the formation of small irregular’ brown spot on the upper surface of the leaves.
  • On the lower surface dark brown to black spots are formed.
  • The spots coalesce to form big patches. The diseased leaves later drop.
  • Plant debris serve as potential source of primary infection.


  • The disease can be controlled effectively by spraying Mancozeb 0.25 per cent

3.Soft rot: Phomopsis natsume


  • The disease appears as a light russet vinaceous coloured, irregular spot on the fruits.
  • It increases in size and make the whole fruit into pulpy, brown to black in colour with soft and loose outer skin.


  • The disease can be-controlled by spraying with Carbendazim 0.05 per cent.
  • First harvest is done within 2 – 3 years after planting.
  • Harvesting should be done at right stage of maturity.
  • Avoid over ripening stage, as it decreases quality and taste of fruits.
  • Picking is done when they are of normal size and give ripening color depending upon variety.
  • Seeds of ber attain physiological maturity 13 weeks after anthesis.
  • It is indicated by yellowish red colour of fruit pericarp.
  • Stones can be size graded using 22 / 64″ round perforated metal sieve.
  • Ber stones can be stored upto 30 months without any treatment under ambient conditions.
  • Remove damaged and under ripe fruits and do grading depending upon size.
  • After grading do proper packing in Corrugated Fibre Board cartoons or wooden baskets, gunny bags of convenient size. 

70 – 80 kg of fruits / tree / year