Amla/Aonla
Botanical Name - Phyllanthus emblica
Family - Euphorbiaceae

  • It is known for its high medicinal properties. 
  • Its fruits are used for preparing various drugs.
  • Drugs prepared from amla used for treatment of anemia, sores, diarrhea, toothache, and fever.
  • Fruits are the rich source of Vitamin-C.
  • The green fruits of amla are also used in making pickles.
  • Many products such as shampoo, hair oil, dye, tooth powder and face creams are made from amla.
  • It is a branching tree with average height of 8-18 m with glabrous branches. Flowers are greenish-yellow in color and are of two type’s i.e. male flower and female flower.
  • Fruits are pale-yellow in color and are 1.3-1.6 cm in diameter.
  • Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh are major amla growing states in India.
     

1.Banarasi:

  • It is an early maturing variety, matures in mid-October to mid-November.
  • It has large sized fruits i.e. 48gmin weight, skin is smooth and fruits are not for preservation purpose.
  • The variety contains 1.4% fiber content.
  • The average yield is 120 kg/tree.

    2.Krishna:
  • It is also an early maturing variety, matures in mid-October to mid-November.
  • It has medium to large sized fruits i.e. 44.6gm in weight, skin is smooth and stripe is well marked.
  • The variety contains 1.4% fiber content.
  • The average yield is 123 kg/tree.

3.NA-9:

  • It is also an early maturing variety, matures in mid-October to mid-November.
  • It has large sized fruits i.e. 50.3gm having oblong shape, skin is smooth and thin.
  • The variety contains low fiber content i.e. 0.9% and highest ascorbic content i.e. 100gm.
  • It is used for making jams, jellies and candies.

4.NA-10:

  • It is also an early maturing variety, matures in mid-October to mid-November.
  • It has medium to large sized fruits i.e. 41.5gm in weight, skin is rough and have 6 distinct segments.
  • Flesh is whitish-green in color having 1.5% of fiber content.

    5.Francis:
     
  • It is a mid-season crop from mid-November to mid-December.
  • It has large size fruit i.e. 45.8 gm in weight having greenish white in color. Fiber content is moderate i.e. 1.5%.
  • The variety is also known as Hathi Jhool because of its drooping branches.

6.NA-7: 

  • It is a mid-season crop from mid-November to mid-December.
  • The fruits are medium to large sized i.e. 44 gm in weight and are greenish-white in color.
  • The fiber content is 1.5% in this variety.

7.Kanchan: 

  • It is a mid-season crop from mid-November to mid-December.
  • The fruits are small in size i.e. 30.2gm in weight.
  • It contains 1.5% fiber content and has medium ascorbic acid content.
  • The average yield is 121 kg/tree.

    8.NA-6:
     
  • It is a mid-season crop from mid-November to mid-December.
  • The fruits are medium in size i.e. 38.8gm in weight.
  • The fiber content is lowest i.e. 0.8%, ascorbic content is moderate i.e. 100gm and have low phenolic content.
  • It is used for making jams and candies.

    9.Chakiya:
  • It is a late maturing crop, matures in mid-December to mid-January.
  • The fruits are medium sized i.e. 33.4gm in weight.
  • It contains 789mg/100g of ascorbic content, 3.4% pectin content and 2% fiber content.
  • It is used for making pickles and drying shreds.

10.NA-7:

  • It is a mid-season crop from mid-November to mid-December.
  • The fruits are medium to large sized i.e. 44 gm in weight and are greenish-white in color.
  • The fiber content is 1.5% in this variety.

11.NA-6: 

  • It is a mid-season crop from mid-November to mid-December.
  • The fruits are medium in size i.e. 38.8 gm in weight.
  • The fiber content is lowest i.e. 0.8%, ascorbic content is moderate i.e. 100 gm and have low phenolic content.
  • It is used for making jams and candies.

12.Chakiya:

  • It is a late maturing crop, matures in mid-December to mid-January.
  • The fruits are medium sized i.e. 33.4gm in weight.
  • It contains 789 mg /100 g of ascorbic content, 3.4% pectin content and 2% fiber content.
  • It is used for making pickles and drying shreds.

Soil –

  • Owing to its hardy nature it is grown in variety of soils.
  • It is grown in slightly acidic to saline soils and can be grown in calcareous soil.
  • It gives best result when grown under fertile-loamy soil with good drainage system.
  • It can also tolerate moderate alkaline soil.
  • It requires pH of soil ranging 6.5-9.5.
  • Avoid cultivation in heavy soils.

Climate – 

Temperature – 46- 48 °C
Rainfall – 630-700mm
Sowing Temperature -22-30° C
Harvesting Temperature -8-15° C
  • For Amla plantation, it required well ploughed and organic soil.
  • To bring soil to fine tilth, plough land before planting.
  • Organic fertilizers such as FYM are mixed with the soil.
  • Then nursery beds are prepared 2.5 cm deep and 15 cm x 15 cm size.

Time of sowing
Amla cultivation is done in the month of July to September.

Spacing
Sow budded seedling at a distance of 4.5 m x 4.5 m in the month of May-June.

Sowing Depth
The pits of 1 metre square are dug and are left as such for 15-20 days for exposure to sun.

Method of sowing
Transplanting of budded seedlings in main field.

Seed Rate
For good growth use seed rate of 200gm/acre.

Seed treatment

  • To protect crop from soil borne disease and pest and for better germination, before sowing seeds are treated with Gibberellic acid @200-500ppm.
  • After chemical treatment seeds are air-dried.

Nutrient Requirement (gm/plant)

NITROGENPHOSPHORUSPOTASH
10050100
  • At the time of land preparation, apply 10 kg FYM and mix well with soil.
  • Apply fertilizer dose of N:P:K in the form of nitrogen @100 gm/plant, phosphorus @ 50 gm/plant and potassium @100 gm/plant.
  • Fertilizer dose is given to one year old plant and increased constantly up to 10 years.
  • Full dose of phosphorus and half dose of potassium and nitrogen are given as basal dose in the month of January-February.
  • The remaining half dose is given in the month of august. In sodic soils, boron and zinc sulphate @100-500 g is given as per tree age and vigour.
  • In summer, apply irrigation with interval of 15 days and in winter, give water through drips @25-30litres/day/tree in October-December month.
  • In monsoon month, it does not require irrigation.
  • Avoid irrigation during the flowering period.
  • Irrigate the plants initially for establishment.
  • No irrigation is required during rainy and
    winter season.
  • Drip irrigation is appropriate with water saving of 40-45%.

1.Boron

Boron

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Fruit necrosis which begins with the browning of inner most part of the mesocarpic tissues at the time of endocarp hardening. 
  • This is extended towards the epicarp resulting into brownish black areas on the fruit surfaces depending of the severity of the disorder, mesocarp of affected fruits turns black from brown which later turns into corky and gummy pockets.
Correction Measure
  • Spray of Borax 0.6% thrice at monthly intervals.

 

1.Leaf roller: Caloptilia  acidula


Symptom of damage

  • Slender green larvae mine part or whole of the leaflets of compound leaves
  • Upper epidermis separated from the lower
  • Intervening space filled with black excreta
  • In severe attack, the leaflets are twisted up to form cocoons
  • If the branch disturbed, all larvae leave their mines

Management

  • Clean cultivation
  • Collection and destruction of infested plant parts along with leaf roller
  • Spray application of dimethaote 0.03% and quinalphos 0.025% were found effective against leaf roller

2.Fruit BorerDeudorix isocrates 

Symptom of damage
  • Larva bores into the fruit in different phases
  • Young larva-tender fruits
  • Grown up larva- attack matured fruits   
  • Infested tender fruits turn brown initially, and become black later
  • Matured fruits start decaying from one side, which gradually spreads all over, before they fall off

Management

  • Collection and destruction of damaged fruits
  • Remove alternate hosts-pomegranate, guava, sapota, tamarind
  • Release T. chilonis- 10 days interval -4 times
  • Inundative release of Trichogramma chilonis @ 15 cc/ha
  • Ovipositional deterrent– Neem oil 3% or NSKE 5%

3.Fruit Piercing Moth: Othreis materna, O. fullonica and O. ancilla 


Symptom of damage

  • Adult moth sucks the sap from fruits by making puncture

Management 

  • Removal of weed plants
    • Tinospora cardifolia
    • Cocculus pendules
  • Destruction of fallen and decayed fruits.
  • Collection of moths at evening by hand nets
  • Collection of semiloopers from the weeds and creepers
  • Use light trap
  • Destruction in kerosenised water below such light
  • Use of poison baits or carbaryl 2g/l

4.Bark Borer : Indarbela tetraonis 


Symptom of damage

  • Make tunnels in the main trunk and branches
  • Larvae construct loose irregular webbing of silken threads
  • Deterioration of vitality
  • Reduction in yield
Management
  • Keep orchard clean
  • Collect loose and damaged bark & destroy
  • Kill larvae by inserting iron spike or wire into hole

5.Aphid:Setaphis bougainvilleae

Symptom of damage
  • Nymph and adults suck sap by remaining on the undersurface of leaves
  • Yellowing of leaves

Management

  • Removal of weeds
  • Field release of syrphids can control aphid population rapidly.
  • Field release of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea
  • Spray neem oil at 3%

6.Whitefly:Trialeurodes rara

Symptom of damage
  • Nymphs and adults suck sap from undersurface of leaves
  • Yellowing of leaves on dorsal side in patches

Management

  • Removal and destruction of alternate weed hosts
  • Use yellow pan traps
  • Spray neem seed kernel extract 5% (50 kg) and neem oil at 5 ml/l
  • Spray fish oil rosin soap 25 kg at 1 kg in 40 lit of water

7.Mealy Bug:Ferrisia virgata

Symptom of damage
  • Covers tender growing points with white mass
  • Suck the sap
  • Vitality reduced

Management

  • Early detection of mealy bugs – presence of ants – indicator
  • Cutting of infested twigs and leaves and burying them
  • Field release of green lace wing Chrysoperla carnea
  • Several species of ladybird beetles such as
    • Chilocorus sp.
    • Cryptolaemus montrouzieri are efficient predator

1) Rust :

Amla Diseases — Vikaspedia

Symptoms-
  • The first appears on the lower side of older leaves with brown, circular, and raised.
  • These symptoms mostly started to be amperes from 2nd fortnight of October.
  • The initial symptoms on fruits were observed from brown to black
  • pustules, which later were developed in the form of ring form
  • The rust symptoms appeared at Sept first fortnight on fruits was observed

Management-

  • The rust of Aonla may be managed by way of 3-four sprays of Wettable sulfur @ 5 g/liter of water at an interval of 1 month or Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/
  • liter of water at duration of 15 days.
  • Application of Indofil M-45 @0.3% is given twice.
  • Once is given in early September and then after 15 days to control crop from diseases.

2)Internal necrosis: 

B - Amla

Symptoms-

  • Mainly caused due to the deficiency of boron.
  • Tissues turn brown and then black are the symptoms of this disease.

Management-

Application of boron @0.6% is done in the month of September to October to get rid of this disease.

3) Fruit rot :

Amla Diseases — Vikaspedia

Symptoms-

  • The above ground parts of the plants may be affecting by this diseases.
  • Fruit rot pathogen caused numerous, small dark brown to blackspots on leaves .
  • Older leaves may be inflamed first, however, all leaves were susceptible and defoliation can result when disease was intense.

Management-

  • The orchard  managed by using of Carbendazim @ 2 ml/liter of water has to be applied at the time of fruit setting 
  • The other manipulate measures like post-harvest measures include a warm water bath, which might also have to be blended with Carbenazim spraying @ 2 ml/liter of water at 15 days interval.

 

 

 

 

  • Plant starts yielding in about 7-8 years after planting.
  • Harvesting is done in the month of February when fruits are green in color and have maximum ascorbic acid content.
  • Harvesting is done by vigorous shaking of tree.
  • When fruits get fully mature they turn into dull greenish-yellow color.
  • For processing and seeds extraction, mature fruits are used.

After harvesting, grading is done. Then fruits are packed in bamboo baskets or crates or wooden boxes. For the less spoilage of crop perfect packing is done and quick transport is required. From amla fruits several products like amla powder, churna, chavanprash, arista and sweet preserves are made.

100 kg / tree annually

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