Okra / Bhendi
Botanical Name - Abelmoschus esculentus  
Family - Malvaceae

  • Okra is low in calories but packed full of nutrients. 
  • The vitamin C in okra helps support healthy immune function.
  • Okra is also rich in vitamin K, which helps your body clot blood.
  • Antioxidants are natural compounds that help your body fight off molecules called free radicals that can damage cells.

1.Punjab no.13: 

  • Developed by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.
  • It is suitable for cultivation in spring as well as in summer.
  • Fruits are of light green color and of medium size.
  • It is susceptible to yellow vein mosaic virus.

2.Punjab Padmini:

  • Developed by Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.
  • Fruits are quick growing, hairy and of dark green color.
  • Ready to harvest within 55-60days after sowing.
  • It is tolerant to yellow vein mosaic virus.
  • Gives average yield of 40-48qtl/acre.
  • 3.Punjab 7: 
  • It is resistant to yellow vein mosaic virus, jassid and boll worm.
  • Fruits are dark green, medium in size.
  • Gives average yield of 40qtl/acre.

4.Punjab 8: 

  • Developed from Pusa Sawani.
  • Fruits are of dark green color and 15-16 cm long at time of harvesting.
  • It is tolerant to yellow vein mosaic virus and resistant to fruit borer.

5.Punjab Suhavani:

  • It gives an average yield of 49qtl/acre.
  • It has dark green color fruits and is tolerant to yellow mosaic virus. 

Other States Varieties:

Pusa Mahakali: Developed by IARI, New Delhi. Its fruits are of light green color.

6.Parbhani Kranti: 

  • Fruits are medium long with good keeping quality.
  • It is tolerant to yellow vein mosaic virus.
  • Ready to harvest in 120 days.
  • Gives average yield of 40 to 48qtl/acre.

7.Pusa Sawani: 

  • It is developed by IARI, New Delhi.
  • Suitable for cultivation in summer and rainy season.
  • Ready to harvest within 50 days.
  • Fruits are dark, green and 10-12cm long at time of harvesting.
  • It is susceptible to yellow vein mosaic virus.
  • Gives average yield of 48-60qtl/acre.

    8.Arka Anamika:
  • Developed by IIHR, Banglore.
  • It is resistant to yellow mosaic virus.
  • It give average yield of 80qtl/acre
COBhH 1, COBhH 3 and Bhendi Hybrid CO 4

Soil –

  • Okra can be cultivated in wide range of soil.
  • The ideal soil for okra cultivation is sandy loam to clay loam with rich organic matter and better drainage facility.
  • If proper drainage is available it can grow well in heavy soils.
  • The pH of soil should be 6.0 to 6.5.
  • Do not cultivate crop in alkaline, saline soils also in poor drainage capacity soils.

Climate – 

  • It is a crop of tropical and sub tropical climates requiring a long warm and humid growing season.
  • It is susceptible to frost and cannot thrive well in cold.
  • Seeds fail to germinate below 20°C.
  • Optimum temperature for seed germination is 29° C.

Time of sowing

  • In north it is cultivated in rainy and spring season.
  • In rainy season, it is sown during June-July and for spring season it is cultivated in February – March.


Seed Rate

  • For rainy season crop (June – July) used seed rate of 4-6kg / acre with spacing of 60×30 cm for branching varieties and 45×30 cm for non-branching varieties.
  • Upto mid-February used seed rate 15-18 kg /acre and for sowing in march used seed rate 4-6 kg /acre.  

Seed Treatment

  • Seed germination can be enhanced by soaking the seeds in water for 24hours.
  • Seed treatment with Carbendazim will protect seeds from attack of soil born fungus.
  • For that soak seeds in Carbendazim solution@2gm/Ltr of water for 6 hours and dry them in shades.
  • Then immediately complete sowing. 
  • For better germination and also to protect crop from soil born disease, treat seed with Imidacloprid@5ml per 1Kg seed followed by treatment with Trichoderma viride@ 4gm /kg seeds.
Fungicide nameQuantity (Dosage per kg seed)

Row to row spacing should be 45 cm is recommended and plant to plant distance is 15-20 cm..
Sowing Depth
Plant seed at depth of 1-2 cm.

Method of sowing
For sowing dibbling method is used.  

  • Pre sowing irrigation should be given in summer season crop to ensure good germination if sufficient moisture is not present in soil.
  • The next irrigation is given after seed germination.
  • Then the field is irrigated after 4 to 5 days in summer and 10 to 12 days in rainy season.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

80As per soil test resultsAs per soil test results

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

36As per soil test results

As per soil test results

  • Apply well decomposed cow dung@120-150qtl as basal dose.
  • Overall okra crop required Nitrogen@36kg per acre in form of Urea@80kg/acre. Apply half dose Nitrogen at time of sowing and remaining after first picking of fruits.  
  • To obtain good yield, 10-15days after sowing take spray of 19:19:19 along with micro-nutrients@2.5 to 3gm/Ltr of water.
  • Repeat the spray of 19:19:19@4-5gm/Ltr of water 10-15days after first spray.
  • To obtain good flowering and fruiting, take spray of 00:52:34@50gm/10Ltr water at before onset of flowering followed by another during fruit formation stage.
  • To increase yield and to obtained good quality, at fruit development stage spray with 13:00:45 (Potassium Nitrate)@100gm/10Ltr of water.
Basal dose FYM @ 40 t / ha, N @ 100 kg, P @ 100 kg and K @ 100 kg/ha as basal and 100 kg N / ha 30 at days after sowing.
  • 1 % urea (10 g/l) + muriate of potash (10 g/l) on 30 and 45 days after planting.
  • For hybrids, foliar application of water soluble fertilizer 19-19-19 three times @ 0.5% (5 g/l) at 10 days interval from 30 days after planting.
  • Weeding is done to control the growth of weeds in okra.
  • Earthing up in the rows should be done in rainy season crop.
  • First weeding is done after 20-25 days of sowing and second weeding is done after 40-45 days of sowing.
  • Application of Fluchoralin 48%@1 liter per acre or Pendimethalin@1ltr/acre or Alachlor@1.6Ltr/acre is used as pre-emergence herbicide for controlling weeds in Bhindi is found an effective method.

1)Shoot and Fruit borer : Earias vitella, E. insulana



  • The insect larvae bore into the shoots during vegetative growth resulting in drooping of affected shoots.
  • In later stages bored fruits have larvae inside and filled with excreta.


  • Destroy infested parts.
  • If pest population is high, spray Spinosad@1ml/Ltr water or Chlorantraniliprole 18.5%SC (Coragen) @7ml/15Ltr of water or Flubendiamide@50ml/acre added in 200Ltr water.

2) Blister beetle

Blister Beetle - What's That Bug?


The beetle feed on pollen, petals and flower buds.

  • If infestation is observed, collect and destroy adults and take spray of Carbaryl@ 800 gm /150Ltr of water 
  • Malathion@ 400 ml /150 Ltr of water or
  • Cypermethrin@ 80 ml per 150 Ltr of water is effective.

3) Aphid : Aphis gossypii



  • Colony of aphids on young leaves and fruits can be seen.
  • Adult and nymphs, both suck the sap thus weaken the plant.
  • In severe infestation, they cause curling and deformation of young leaves..


  • Spray any one of the following insecticides (500 l spray fluid/ha)
    • Malathion 50 EC 1.25 ml /l.
    • Imidacloprid 200 SL at 100 ml/ha
    • Dimethoate 30 EC 2.0 ml/l.
    • NSKE 5%
  • Monitoring the activities of the alate adult by setting up yellow sticky traps

4 .Shoot weevil: Alcidodes affaber


Symptoms of damage:

  • Grub feed on stem and galls are formed in the stem and petiole
  • Adults feed on leaf buds and terminal shoots


  • Soil application of Carbofuran 3 G at 30 kg/ ha on 20 DAS and earthed up.
  • Basal application of FYM 25 t/ha or 250 kg/ha of neem cake.

5.Stem weevil: Pempherulus affinis


Symptoms of damage:

  • Grub feed on stem and galls are formed in the stem and petiole
  • Adults feed on leaf buds and terminal shoots


  • Soil application of Carbofuran 3 G at 30 kg/ha on 20 DAS and earthed up.
  • Basal application of FYM 25 t/ha or 250 kg/ha of neem cake.

6.Leaf roller : Sylepta derogata

       Bele (Abelmoschus) leaf roller (087)      Leafroller Control - How To Prevent Strawberry Leafrollers

Symptoms of damage:

  • Caterpillar rolled the leaves
  • Scrapping the chlorophyll content and feed inside
  • Defoliation


  • Collect and destroy rolled leaves
  • Spray carbaryl 50 WP 2 g/lit or phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit

7.Semilooper: Anomis flava

Symptoms of damage:

  • Caterpillar fed on the leaves
  • Defoliation


  • Spray phosalone 35 EC @ 2ml/lit.

8.Whitefly: Bemisia tabaci


Symptoms of damage:

  • Chlorotic spots on the leaves which latter coalesce forming irregular yellowing of leaf tissue
  • Development of sooty mold
  • Vector of yellow vein mosaic virus


  • Spray any of the following insecticide
    • Phosalone 35 EC @ 2.5 l/ha
    • Quinalphos 25 EC @ 2.0 l/ha
    • Triazophos 40 EC @ 2.0 l/ha

9 Jassids: Amrasca devastans


Symptoms of damage:

  • Tender leaves become yellow
  • The margin of the leaves start curling downwards and reddening sets in
  • In the case of severe infestation leaves get a bronze which is typical “hopper burn” symptom


Spray any one of the following insecticides (spray fluid 500 l/ha)

  • Imidacloprid 200 SL at 100 ml/ha
  • Methyl demeton 25 EC 500 ml/ha
  • Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha
  • NSKE 5%

10.Red cotton bug: Dysdercus cingulatus

Symptoms of damage:

  • Infested seeds become discoloured and shrivelled


  • Conserve the biocontrol agent Harpactor costalis predaceous on nymph and adult
  • Spray phosphamidon 40 SL @ 600 ml/ha



Deficiency Symptoms

Stunted plant growth; old leaves become turn yellow in color and occurence of marginal chlorosis

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of KCl@1%



Deficiency Symptoms

Leaves become brittle; stunted plant growth

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of borax@0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms

young leaves become smaller in size; malformed fruits

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of borax@0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms

Stunted plant growth; chlorosis occur in young leaves

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 05.%



Deficiency Symptoms

Reduction in internode length was observed about 5 weeks before the leaves showed chlorosis.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MnSO4 @0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Marked depression in leaf production and leaf size occurred within about 3 weeks and leaf mottling developed about 2 weeks later. 
  • The stem diameter was reduced.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of ZnSO4 0.5% or Soil application of 10kg ZnSO4/ha

1) Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus:



  • The characteristic symptom of this disease is homogenous interwoven network of yellow veins.
  • Growth of the plant gets affected and they remain stunted.
  • Fruits also give yellow appearance with small size and tough texture.
  • It causes yield losses up to 80-90%.
  • This disease is spread due to white fly and leaf hopper.


  • Use resistant varieties for cultivation.
  • Remove and destroyed diseased plants away from field.
  • To control white fly take spray of Dimethoate@300ml/200Ltr of water.

2) Powdery mildew: 



  • White powdery growth is observed on young leaves and also on fruits.
  • In severe condition premature defoliation and fruit drop is observed.
  • Fruit quality get deteriorated and they remain small in size.


  • If infestation is observed in field, take spray of Wet table Sulphur 25 gm /10 Ltr of water or
  • Dinocap@ 5 ml /10 Ltr of water, 4 times at 10 days interval or
  • Tridemorph@5 ml or Penconazol@10 ml /10 Ltr of water for 4 times with 10 days interval.

3) Cercospora leaf spot: 

TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection


  • Spots of grayish centre and red borders appears on the leaves.
  • In case of severe infestation, defoliation occurs.


  • To avoid future infection do seed treatment with Thiram.
  • If infestation of disease is observed in field, take spray of Mancozeb@4gm/Ltr or Captan@2gm/Ltr or Carbendazime@2gm per Ltr of water. Or
  • Give two – three foliar spray of Difenoconazole/Hexaconazole@0.5gm/Ltr of water.

4) Root rot :

What is going on with these Okra roots? - UF/IFAS Extension Santa Rosa ...


Infested roots become dark brown in color and plant die in case of severe infestation.


  • Avoid monocropping and follow crop rotation.
  • Before sowing do seed treatment with Carbendazim@2.5gram per kg of seed.
  • Drench the soil with Carbendazim solution@1gm/Ltr of water.

5) Wilt: 


  • In wilt disease, initially older leaves turn yellow followed by complete wilting of crop.
  • It can attack crop at any stage.


If infestation is observed, Drench with Carbendazim@10gm/10Ltr water around root zone.

Application of carbofuran 3G 1 kg a.i /ha or neem cake @400 kg/ha at sowing in furrows along with fertilizers
  • The fruits are ready to harvest after 60 to 70 days of sowing.
  • Small and tender fruit should be harvested.
  • The fruits should be harvested in the morning and evenings.
  • Delay in harvesting may make the fruits fibrous and they lose their tenderness and taste. 
  • Okra has short shelf life and cannot be stored for longer time.
  • The okra fruit should be stored at 7-10°C and 90% relative humidity to increase the shelf life.
  • For local markets the fruits are filled in jute bags, whereas for distant markets the fruits are packed in perforated paper cartons.
  • Rainy season crop gives 120 -150 quintal/ha.
  • Summer crop gives 80 -100 quintal/ha. Duration is 100 & 90 days respectively.

Crop Growing districts:             Vellore, Salem, Coimbatore, Dindigul
Major markets in Tamil Nadu: Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu, Chennai Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram Natchipalayam vegetable                                                               market, Coimbatore
Grade Specification:                    Light green or dark green, hairy or tender smooth surface, 5-ridged and remain tender for a longer period,                                                                 medium length.