Bottle Gourd
Botanical Name -Lagenaria Siceraria
Family - Cucurbitaceae

  • Bottle gourd is also known as “Calabash” or “lauki” and it belongs to family “Cucurbitaceae”.
  • It is an annual climbing vine which has vigorous growth.
  • The plant bears white color flowers which bears fleshy and bottle shaped fruits.
  • The fruit is used for cooking purpose.
  • There are also health benefits of bottle gourd.
  • It helps in better digestion, reduces sugar level and constipation, cures insomnia and urinary infections and is good remedy for treating insomnia.

1.Punjab Long (1997): 

  • It is appropriate for packaging as well as long-distance marketing.
  • The average yield per acre is 180 q /acre.

2.Punjab Komal (1988) :

  • Variety that matures early.
  • The first fruit matures and is marketable in about 70 days after sowing.
  • It produces 10-12 oblong, medium-sized, light green, pubescent fruits per vine. Fruits are tender and borne on medium, long, thin pedicel from the fourth or fifth node.
  • It is resistant to the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).
  • The average yield per acre is around 200 q /acre.

3.Punjab Barkat (2014): 

  • Vines as vigorously growing and profusely branched.
  • The stem is adolescent.
  • The fruits are long, cylindrical, gleaming, tender, and light green in colour.
  • It is moderately resistant to mosaic disease.
  • It produces 226 q/acre on average.

4.Punjab Bahar (2017):

  • Medium-length pubescent vines.
  • The fruits are nearly round, medium in size, light green, gleaming, and pubescent.
  • Its vines produce 9 to 10 fruits on average.
  • It has an average yield of 222 q/acre.

5.Bottle Gourd Round Varieties

The main varieties of round bottle gourd are Pusa Summer Prolific Round, Pusa Manjri (Sankar variety), and Punjab Round.


6.Arka Bahar : 

  • Pure line selection from IIHR-20A.
  • Fruits medium long, straight without crookneck.
  • Light green shining fruit skin when tender (1kg).
  • Tolerant to blossom end rot. Yield 160-180q/ acre.
TNAU Bottle gourd Hybrid CO1
  • In hi-tech horticulture, plant 15 days old healthy seedlings raised in shade net
  • Raise the seedlings in protrays having 98 cells or in polythene bags.
  • Transplant about 15 days old seedlings in the main field.

Soil –

  • It is grown in variety of soils.
  • It gives best result when grown in sandy loam to loamy soil.


  • Bottle gourd requires hot and humid climate.
  • This crop is very sensitive to frost & it does not tolerate frost.
  • So it is very necessary that there should be no frost for 4 months for is better growth.
  • Temperature of about 20 to 32°C is suitable for its cultivation.

Time of sowing:
The optimum time for sowing is February-March, June-July and November-December month.

Use row spacing of 2.0-2.5m and plant spacing of 45-60cm.

Sowing depth:
1-2cm deep seeds are sown.

Seed rate:
Seed rate of 2 kg is sufficient for one acre land.

Seed treatment:
Seed is treated with Bavistin@0.2% @3gm/kg to protect the seeds from soil borne fungus. 

  • For bottle gourd farming, well prepared land is used.
  • To bring the soil to fine tilth, ploughing followed by harrowing is done.
  • Apply FYM (Farm Yard Manure) @ 20-25 tonnes / acre.
  • Application of fertilizer dose of nitrogen @ 28 kg /acre in the form of urea @ 60 kg / acre should be done.
  • First dose of nitrogen@14 kg / acre (urea @30kg / acre) is given at the time of sowing and second dose of nitrogen @14 kg / acre (urea @ 30 kg / acre) is given at the time of first picking.
  • Crop requires immediate irrigation.
  • After sowing, immediate irrigation is given.
  • In summer season 6-7 irrigations are required and in rainy season if needed then irrigation is given.
  • In total, 9 irrigations are required.
  • Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at
    an interval of 1.5 m.
  • Place the drippers at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH
    and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
  • To control the weeds, 2-3 hoeings are required at the initial stages of plant growth.
  • Weeding operations are carried out at the time of fertilizer application.
  • Earthing up is also an effective way which should be carried out in rainy season. 
  • Weeding can be done by hoeing as and when necessary.
  • Fruit rot during rainy season can be checked by training the plants over the bamboo stick or dried branch

Pest and their control

1) Fruit fly : Bactrocera cucurbitae

Symptoms of damage:

  • Maggots feed on the pulp of the fruits
  • Premature dropping of fruits and also unfit for consumption
  • They feed themselves on internal tissues of fruits which cause premature fruit dropping and rotting and yellowing of fruits.


  • Collect infested and fallen fruits and bum in deep pits.
  • Expose the pupae by ploughing and turning over soil after harvest
  • Use ribbed gourd as trap crop and apply carbaryl 0.15% or malathion 0.1% on congregating adult flies on the undersurface of leaves.
  • Use attractants like citronella oil, eucalyptus oil, vinegar (acetic acid), and lactic acid to trap flies.

2. Pumpkin beetles:  Aulacophora foveicollis

Symptoms of damage:

  • Grubs feeds on the roots, stem and fruits touching the soil
  • Adult feeds on leaf and flowers.


  • Plough the fields just after harvesting destroy the hibernating adults
  • Collect and destroy adult beetles
  • Spray malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml or methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ ha

3.Stem borer : Melittia eurytion

Symptoms of damage:

  • Larva bores into  the stem of snake gourd and produces galls


  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts with larvae
  • Encourage activity of parasitoid: Apanteles spp.
  • Spray any following insecticides
    • malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml
    • dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml
    • methyl demeton 25 EC @ 500 ml/ ha

4. Stem gall fly: Neolasioptera falcata

Symptoms of damage:

  • Maggots bore into the distal shoot and form galls


  • Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml
    • Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @ 500 ml/ ha

5.Snake gourd semilooper : Plusia peponis

Symptoms of damage:

  • The caterpillar cuts the edges  of  leaf lamina, folds it over the  leaf and feeds from within leaf roll


  • Collect and destroy the caterpillars
  • Encourage activity of Apanteles taragamae, A. plusiae
  •  Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Dimethoate 30 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @500 ml/ha

6.Pumpkin caterpillar: Diaphania indica

Symptoms of damage:

  • Young larva scrapes the cholorophyll content
  • Later on it folds and webs the leaves and feeds within
  • It also feeds on flowers and bores into developing fruits


  • Collect and destroy early stage caterpillars
  • Encourage activity of parasioid: Apanteles spp.
  • Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Dimethoate 30 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @500 ml/ha

7.Bottle gourd plume moth: Sphenarches caffer

Symptoms of damage:

  • Larva feeds on leaves making small holes


  • Collect and destroy larvae and pupae
  • Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Dimethoate 30 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @500 ml/ha



1) Downy mildew : Pseudoperonospora cubensis

Click for larger image.


  • Symptoms resembling mosaic viz, pale green areas separated by dark green areas appear on upper surface of leaf.
  • During wet season, corresponding lower surface is covered with faint purplish fungal growth.
  • The entire leaf dries up quickly.


  • Use of bed system with wide spacing with good drainage and air movement and exposure to sun help to check the disease development.
  • Spray with Moncozeb 0.2 % or Chlorothalonil 0.2% or Difolaton 0.2% or Ridomil MZ 72 0.1%
  • Seed treatment with Apron SD 35 @ 2 g./kg. followed by spraying with Mancozeb 0.2% is effective in reducing the disease.

2 Powdery mildew: Erysiphe cichoracearum


  • Powdery mildew, is especially prevalent in hot dry conditions.
  • White or brown mealy growth will be found on upper and lower surfaces and stems.
  • Under severe infestations, the plant will be weakened and stunted.


  • The disease can be controlled by spraying Wettable sulphur 0.1%.

3.Mosaic: PRSV/CMV


  • A virus distributed world wide, affecting most cucurbits but rarely affecting watermelon.
  • New growth is cupped downward, and leaves are severely mottled with alternating light green and dark green patches.
  • Plants are stunted, and fruits are covered with bumpy protrusions. Severely affected cucumber fruit may be almost entirely white.


  • The virus is readily transferred by aphids and survives on a wide variety of plants.
  • Varietal resistance is the primary management tool, and eliminating weeds and infected perennial ornamentals that may harbor the virus is critical.
  • Spray with any one of the systemic insecticide



Deficiency Symptoms

Lower (old) leaves show puckering and yellowing in interveinal areas and marginal scorching.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of KCl@1%



Deficiency Symptoms

Leaf growth will be affected; terminal flower bud and growth of the fruit will be severely affected

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of CaCl2@0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms

Symptoms seen in old leaves; ouuurence of interveinal chlorosis

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MgSO4@0.5%


Guide to Boron Deficiency in Cucurbits - PowerAG

Deficiency Symptoms

Buckering of leaves; leaves become brittle when symptoms seem severe

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of borax@0.5%




Deficiency Symptoms

Chlorosis occur in young leaves; leaves turn into yellow

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4@0.5%

  • Depending upon variety and season, crop is ready for harvesting in 60-70 days.
  • Depending upon market requirement, medium and tender fruits are harvested. Mature fruits are mostly stored for seed production purpose.
  • Cut the fruits from vines with help of sharp knife.
  • In peak season, picking should be done in every 3-4 days.
  • Keep isolation distance of 800m from other varieties of sponge gourd.
  • Remove diseased plants from the field.
  • For seed production, the fruits are harvested when they get physiologically mature. Three field inspections are required for the production of true to type seed.
  • After harvesting, fruits are dried and then seeds are extracted.

Variety: 15 – 20 t/ha in 135 days.
Hybrid: 75-80 t/ha in 135 – 175 days

  • Crop Growing district  Dindigul ,Thiruvallur ,Coimbatore, Thoothukudi
  • Major markets in Tamil  Nadu Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu, Chennai Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram Natchipalayam                                                    vegetable market, Coimbatore