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Ribbed Gourd
Botanical Name- Luffa acutangula Roxb.
Family – Cucurbitaceae

Information

  • Ribbed gourd (Luffa acutangula), commonly known as angled luffa or ridged gourd, is a tropical vegetable that is widely cultivated for its tender fruit and medicinal properties.
  • To ensure optimal growth, maximize yield, and improve the overall quality of ribbed gourd produce, nutrient management plays a crucial role.
  • In this article, we will delve into the essential nutrients required for healthy ribbed gourd cultivation and explore effective strategies to manage these nutrients.

Varieties

Varieties
Co 1, Co 2, PKM 1.

1. CO.1 (1976):

  • Selection from local type collected from Aduthurai.
  • Fruits are 45-50cm long with distinct ridges and broader stylar end than the stalk. They are green in colour weighing700g.
  • The variety yields 14 tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 125 days

2.CO.2 (1984):

  • Characterised by a super long fruit weighing 90-100 cm with less seed content tan CO1.
  • They are green in colour weighing700g-800g.
  • The variety yields 25tonnes/ha in a crop duration of 120 days

Soil and Climate

Soil-

  • Before sowing ribbed gourd seeds, it is essential to prepare the soil adequately. Conduct a soil test to determine its fertility level and composition.
  • Ribbed gourd plants prefer well-drained loamy soil with a balanced pH ranging between 6.0 and 7.5.
  • It is recommended to incorporate organic matter, such as well-rotted compost or farmyard manure, into the soil to improve its structure, water-holding capacity, and overall nutrient content.

Climate –

  • As tender fruits are easily digestible and appetizing, it is prescribed for those who are suffering from malaria and other seasonal fevers.
  • Ribbed gourd prefers warm humid climate for its cultivation.
  • Optimum temperature required is 24-27 C for its growth and development.

Season and Sowing

Time of sowing:

  • The seeds are sown twice in the year.
  • The ideal time for sowing is in the month of mid-February to March and second time in the month of mid-May to July.

Seed Rate

  • Seed rate:
    Use seed rate of 2.0 kg/acre.
  • Seed treatment:
    With the help of filer firstly scrap the seed coat of the seed and then soak the seeds in the water for 24 hours for better viability and higher germination percentage.

Nursery Management and transplanting

  • Seeds are sown on prepared nursery beds.
  • Avoid seedbeds to touch the ground to protect them from soil-borne diseases.
  • Transplanting is mainly done after 25-30 days of sowing having 4-5 leaves on the seedling.
  • Seedlings are planted at the distance of 2.5 x 1.2 m between rows and plants.
  • Fertilizer application of NPK is applied after 7-10 days of transplanting, then at the time of starting of lateral vine development, then at the flowering period.

Preparation of Field

  • To bring the soil to the fine tilth and to make the field weed free, ploughings are required.
  • At the time of ploughing add Farm Yard Manure (FYM) in the field for the good yield. FYM @84 qtl in per acre of land is added for quality crop production.
  • Dig pits of 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm size at 2.5 x 2 m spacing and form basins.

Spacing

  • Spacing:
    Sow two seeds per hill which is 3m wide and use spacing of 75-90cm between seeds.
  • Sowing depth:
    Seeds are sown at the depth of 2.5-3 cm.
  • Method of sowing:
    Dibbling method is used.

RIDGE GOURD-PANDAL SYSTEM

Fertilizer

  • Apply 10 kg of FYM, 100 g of NPK 6:12:12 g mixture as basal dose/pit and N @ 10 g/pit at 30 days after sowing.
  • Apply Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria @2 kg/ha and Pseudomonas 2.5 kg/ha along with FYM 50 kg and neem cake @ 100 kg before last ploughing.

 

 
Weed Control

  • To make the field weed free mulching and then weedicides are necessary.
  • Apply Pendimethalin @1 ltr/acre or Fluchloralin @800ml/acre as pre-emergence herbicide.

Irrigation

  • Irrigate the basin before dibbling the seeds and thereafter once in a week.
  • In summer or dry condition, apply irrigation with the interval of 7-10 days and in rainy season, it requires limited irrigation.
  • First irrigation must be done immediately after seed sowing
  • In total crop requires 7-8 numbers of irrigations. 

Drip Irrigation

  • Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at
    an interval of 1.5 m.
  • Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.

Fertigation

Fertigation
Apply a dose of 250:100:100 kg NPK/ha throughout the cropping period through split application.

Fertigation Schedule- Ribbed gourd (Hybrid)
Recommended dose: 250:100:100 Kg/ha

Stage Crop stage Duration in days Fertilizer grade Total Fertilizer (kg/ha) Nutrient supplied % requirement
N P K N P K
1 Crop establishment stage 10 12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea
32.79
22.00
39.49
3.93
2.87
18.20
5.00


10.00
10.00 5.00 10.00
Subtotal 25.00 5.00 10.00      
2 Vegetative stage 30 19:19:19 +
MN
Urea
157.89
97.67
29.99
45.00
7.50


29.99
30.00 7.50 30.00
Subtotal 74.99 7.50 29.99      
3 Flower initiation to first picking 20 12-61-0
13-0-45
Urea
49.17
44.00
137.52
5.91
5.72
63.84
7.50


20.00
30.00 7.50 20.00
Subtotal 75.47 7.50 20.00      
4 Harvesting stage 60 12-16-0
13-0-45
Urea
32.79
88.00
129.39
3.93
11.44
59.63
5.00


40.00
30.00 5.00 40.00
  Total duration 120   Subtotal 75.00 5.00 40.00      
Total 250.46
(or)
250.00
25.00 99.99
(or)
100.00
100 25 100

*75% RD of Phosphorus applied as superphosphate = 469 Kg/ha.
1. 19:19:19 = 158 kg/ha
2. 13:0:45 = 154 kg/ha
3. 12:61:0 = 115 kg/ha
4. Urea = 405 kg/ha

Plant Protection

1.Fruit flies: Bactrocera cucurbitae

Symptoms of damage:

  • Maggots feed on the pulp of the fruits
  • Oozing of resinous fluid from fruits
  • Distorted and malformed fruits
  • Premature dropping of fruits and also unfit for consumption

Management:

  • Collect infested and fallen fruits and bum in deep pits.
  • Expose the pupae by ploughing and turning over soil after harvest
  • Use ribbed gourd as trap crop and apply carbaryl 0.15% or malathion 0.1% on congregating adult flies on the undersurface of leaves.
  • Use attractants like citronella oil, eucalyptus oil, vinegar (acetic acid), and lactic acid to trap flie

2.Pumpkin beetles: Red Beetle: Aulacophora foveicollis

Symptoms of damage:

  • Grubs feeds on the roots, stem and fruits touching the soil
  • Adult feeds on leaf and flowers.
Management:

  • Plough the fields just after harvesting destroy the hibernating adults
  • Collect and destroy adult beetles
  • Spray malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml or dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml or methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ ha

3.Stem borer or clear winged moth: Melittia eurytion

Symptoms of damage:

  • Larva bores into  the stem of snake gourd and produces galls

Management:

  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts with larvae
  • Encourage activity of parasitoid: Apanteles spp.
  • Spray any following insecticides
    • malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml
    • dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml
    • methyl demeton 25 EC @ 500 ml/ ha

4.Stem gall fly: Neolasioptera falcata

Symptoms of damage:

  • Maggots bore into the distal shoot and form galls

Management:

  • Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml
    • Dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @ 500 ml/ ha

5 Snake gourd semilooper : Plusia peponis

Symptoms of damage:

  • The caterpillar cuts the edges  of  leaf lamina, folds it over the  leaf and feeds from within leaf roll

Management:

  • Collect and destroy the caterpillars
  • Encourage activity of Apanteles taragamae, A. plusiae
  •  Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Dimethoate 30 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @500 ml/ha

6.Pumpkin caterpillar: Diaphania indica

Symptoms of damage:

  • Young larva scrapes the cholorophyll content
  • Later on it folds and webs the leaves and feeds within
  • It also feeds on flowers and bores into developing fruits

Management:

  • Collect and destroy early stage caterpillars
  • Encourage activity of parasioid: Apanteles spp.
  • Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Dimethoate 30 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @500 ml/ha

7.Bottle gourd plume moth: Sphenarches caffer

Symptoms of damage:

  • Larva feeds on leaves making small holes

Management:

  • Collect and destroy larvae and pupae
  • Spray any following insecticides
    • Malathion 50 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Dimethoate 30 EC @500 ml/ha
    • Methyl demeton 25 EC @500 ml/ha

.

8.Leaf miner: Liriomyza trifolii

Symptoms of damage:

  • Leaves with serpentine mines.
  • Drying and dropping of leaves due to severe infestation.

Management:

  • Collect and destroy mined leaves
  • Spray NSKE 3%

Nutritional Deficiency

1.Nitrogen

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Apical growing points stop developing leaves thick brittle and irregular chlorosis.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of Borax 0.5 % at fortnightly intervals

2.Potassium

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Older leaves affected first.
  • Leaf tips and margins turn yellow and then become scorched continuing inward to the leaf center.
  • Leaf margin cup downward interveinal leaf necrosis restricted growth.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of K2SO4 @1 % at fortnightly intervals

3.Magnesium


Deficiency Symptoms

  • Apical growing points stop developing leaves thick brittle and irregular chlorosis.

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of Borax 0.5 % at fortnightly intervals

4.Manganese


Deficiency Symptoms

  • Symptoms seen in young leaves; leaves become pale yellow

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of MnSO4 @0.5 % at fortnightly intervals

Diseases
1.Downy mildew: Pseudoperonospora cubensis cucurbit downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis)

Symptoms

  • Symptoms resembling mosaic viz, pale green areas separated by dark green areas appear on upper surface of leaf.
  • During wet season, corresponding lower surface is covered with faint purplish fungal growth.
  • The entire leaf dries up quickly.

Management

  • Use of bed system with wide spacing with good drainage and air movement and exposure to sun help to check the disease development.
  • Spray with Moncozeb 0.2 % or Chlorothalonil 0.2% or Difolaton 0.2% or Ridomil MZ 72 0.1%
  • Seed treatment with Apron SD 35 @ 2 g./kg. followed by spraying with Mancozeb 0.2% is effective in reducing the disease.

2.Powdery mildew: Erysiphe cichoracearum

powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum)

Symptoms

  • Powdery mildew, is especially prevalent in hot dry conditions.
  • White or brown mealy growth will be found on upper and lower surfaces and stems.
  • Under severe infestations, the plant will be weakened and stunted.

Management

  • The disease can be controlled by spraying Wettable sulphur 0.1%.

3.Mosaic: PRSV/CMV

mosaic viruses (general)

Symptoms:

  • A virus distributed world wide, affecting most cucurbits but rarely affecting watermelon.
  • New growth is cupped downward, and leaves are severely mottled with alternating light green and dark green patches.
  • Plants are stunted, and fruits are covered with bumpy protrusions. Severely affected cucumber fruit may be almost entirely white.

Management

  • The virus is readily transferred by aphids and survives on a wide variety of plants.
  • Varietal resistance is the primary management tool, and eliminating weeds and infected perennial ornamentals that may harbor the virus is critical.
  • Spray with any one of the systemic insecticide

Harvesting

  • Crops are ready for harvesting after 70-80 days of sowing.
  • Carry out picking at the interval of 3-4 days.
  • Harvesting of tender and medium sized fruits should be done.
  • It gives an average yield of 66-83 qtl per acre.

Yield

It gives an average yield of 66-83 qtl per acre.

Market Information

Crop Growing districts                           Erode, Coimbatore, Tiruppur
Major markets in Tamil Nadu               Periyar Vegetable Market Koyambedu, Chennai, Gandhi Market, Oddanchathiram, Natchipalayam                                                                                vegetable market, Coimbatore