Capsicum- Sweet pepper/Bell pepper
Botanical Name- Capsicum annuum
Family - Solanaceae

  • It is a valuable vegetable crop which is grown in green house or in shade net houses.
  • It is also known as “Sweet pepper” or “bell pepper”.
  • Capsicums are the rich source of minerals and Vitamins A and C.
  • It is a perennial herbaceous plant which belongs to the family of Solanaceae.
  • It attains the height of 75 cm.
  • It has small flowers which are white or purple in color which bears fruits.

1) Bomby (red color):

  • It is an early maturing variety.
  • This variety has tall and strong plant having good branching.
  • It requires adequate shelter for fruit development.
  • It contains dark green color fruits which become red at the time of maturity having an average weight of 130-150 gm.
  • It has longer shelf life and can be ideal for long distance transportation.

2) Orobelle (yellow color):

  • It is grown in mainly cold climate.
  • The fruits are almost square in shape having medium-thick wall.
  • The fruits become yellow at the time of maturity having an average weight of 150 gm.
  • It is disease resistant variety which can be grown in open field and in greenhouses.

3) Indra (green):

  • This variety has tall and bushy appearance.
  • It has dark green color leaves having dense foliage.
  • Fruits are dark green in color with an average weight of 170 gm.
  • Fruit development starts after 50-55 days of sowing.
  • It is ideal for long distance transportation and has longer shelf life.
  • Indra:The fruits are dark green in color. It gives an average yield of 110qtl/acre. The average weight of fruit id 80gm.  

Other state variety:

California Wonder, Chinese Giant, World Beater, Yolo Wonder Bharat, ArkaMohini, ArkaGaurav, ArkaBasant, Early Giant. Bullnose, King of North, Ruby King, etc. are the important varieties of capsicum grown in India. 

  • Avoid the location or area where heavy rains accompanied with gusty winds are prevalent to avoid damage to the protected structure.
  • Well-drained sandy loam soils having good percolation is most suitable to grow capsicum.
  • Seeds are mainly sown in the end of the October month and transplanting is done in mid-February.
  • For early yield, seeds are sown in the mid-October month and transplanting is done in end November.
  • Seed rate:
    Use seed rate of 200-300 gm for one acre of land.
  • Seed treatment:
    Soak the seeds in Thiram or Captan, Ceresan etc. @2gm/kg of seeds before sowing to prevent the crops from seed borne diseases.
  • For capsicum farming, nursery beds are raised firstly.
  • Seed beds of 300 x 60 x 15cm are prepared to raise seedlings.
  • Seeds are sown in raised nursery beds and after sowing cover the nursery beds with thin layer of soil manure.
  • Light irrigation is necessary after sowing the seeds in raising beds for optimum germination of seeds.
  • Transplanting is done when seedlings attain 4-5 leaves.
  • Transplanting is done in prepared fields.
  • Transplanting is mainly done in evening during cloudy weather.
  • Mainly 50-60 old seedlings are used for transplanting.
  • Apply water to the nursery beds before transplanting so that seedling can be easily uprooted.
  •  Prepare the nursery area of 3 cents with slanting slope of 2 % for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
  • Cover the nursery area with 50 % shade net and cover the sides using 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net.
  •  Form raised beds of 1 m width and convenient length and place HDPV pipes at 2m interval for further protection with polythene sheets during rainy months.
  • Mix sterilized cocopeat @ 300 kg with 5 kg neem cake along with Azospirillum and phosphobacteria each @ 1 kg. Approximately 1.2 kg of cocopeat is required for filling
  • one protray. 238 protrays (98 cells) are required for the production of 23,324 seedlings, which are required for one hectare adopting a spacing of 90 x 60 x 60 cm in a paired row system.
  • Sow the treated seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.
  • Cover the seeds with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts.
  • After 6 days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside the shade net.
  • Water with rose-can every day and drench with 19:19:19 @ 0.5% (5g/l) at 18 days after sowing.
  • For capsicum plantation, fields should be well prepared.
  • To bring the soil to fine tilth, 5-6 ploughings followed by planking’s must be done.
  • At the time of land preparation FYM (Farm Yard Manure) or compost is mixed with the soil.

Soil –

  • It requires an ideal soil temperature between 18-35°C.
  • It is grown in all type of soils ranging from clayey to loamy soil.
  • It can also withstand in acidic soil to some extent.
  • It gives best result when grown under sandy loam soil having high fertility and good drainage system.
  • It requires pH ranging from 6-7 is best for capsicum.

Climate – 

  • Capsicum prefers moderately low temperatures and dry season.
  • Seed germinates best at the temperature range from 20 to 25 C 
  • Grows best at 18 – 25◦C. average daily temperatures
  •  20 to 25◦C are optimum for fruit setting.

Use row to row spacing of 50 cm and plant to plant spacing of 40 cm.

Sowing depth:
Depth should be 2-4 cm.

Method of sowing:
Low tunnel technology:

  • This technology is used to produce early yield of capsicum in early summer.
  • It helps to protect the crop from cold season i.e. in the month of December to mid-February.
  • Beds of 2.5 m width are sown in the month of December.
  • Use row to row spacing of 130 cm and line to line spacing of 30 cm for seedling sowing.
  • Before sowing supportive rods of 45-60 cm length are fixed in the soil.
  • Cover the field with plastic sheet (100 gauge thickness) with the help of support rods.
  • Plastic sheet should be removed mainly in the month of February when temperature is suitable outside.

•    Dibbling method

Nutrient Value (kg/acre)



Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)



At the time of land preparation, mixed FYM @20-25 tonnes/acre in the soil. Along with FYM, apply fertilizer dose of Nitrogen @50 kg/acre in the form of urea @110kg/acre, Phosphorus @25kg/acre in the form of super phosphate@175 kg/acre and Potassium@12kg/acre in the form of Muriate of Potash@20 kg/acre.

Full dose of Potassium, phosphorus and 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen is mixed in rows just before transplanting and the rest of the nitrogen dose is given in two equal splits i.e. one after one month of transplanting and second after two months of transplanting.

  • For good yield of crop, weeding must be done at proper intervals.
  • Earthing up after 2-3 weeks of transplanting will help to remove weeds from the fields.
  • First weeding is done after 30 days of transplanting then second weeding is done after 60 days of transplanting. 

1)Damping off:

Fusarium damping-off (Fusarium solani ) on pepper (Capsicum annuum ...


  • It is a fungal disease which affects the young seedlings.
  • The symptoms are patches shown on the stem which ultimately shrivel and then die.
  • They affect the whole crop within 4-5 days.
  • Occur when crop is grown in poor drained soils.


  • Spraying of Bordeaux mixture @0.5-1.0% or any copper oxychloride mixture such as Blitox or Fytolan will help to get rid of damping off.
2) Anthracnose: 
Capsicum (chilli) anthracnose (177)
  • It is a fungal disease which affects the stem, leaves and fruits of the crop. 
  • Dark and round spots on fruits and black color minute spots are seen on the seeds.
  • Infected fruits will drop prematurely.
  • The disease is mostly infected in high humidity.
  • Seed treatment is must before sowing the seeds.
  • Seeds are treated with Thiram @0.2% or Brassico @0.2% to prevent from anthracnose disease.
  • Spray of Dithane (M-45) or Blitox @0.4% or Difoltan @0.2% is done at the interval of 15 days.
3) Powdery mildew :
Powdery Mildew- Peppers - Ontario CropIPM
  • The disease mainly occurs in summers.
  • The symptoms are white talcum powder like growth is seen on the leaf, stunted growth and leaves get shed.
  • Spraying of Sulfex @0.2% or Tridemorph@0.2% is done at the interval of 15 days is done to get rid of powdery mildew.
4) Bacterial wilt :
Bacterial Wilt on Peppers - Garden Notes - YouTube
  • The symptoms are rapid growth of wilting on leaves as well as on fruits.
  • Application of bleaching powder @15kg before will help to prevent bacterial wilt.
  • Use of resistant varieties such as “Arka Gaurav” will help to prevent disease.
5) Leaf curl disease:
Capsicum leaves are curling and deforming - Gardening & Landscaping ...
  • The symptoms are leaf curling, blistering of interveinal areas and thickening of mid vein of leaves.
  • The plants showing this should be uprooted to prevent further infection.
6) Thrips : 
Thrips Damage on Pepper | Rebecca McMahon | Flickr
  • The symptoms are white blotches seen on leaves and stunted growth.
  • Spraying of Malathion(Cythion 50 EC @1.5ml/ltr of water) or Dimethoate (Rogor 30 EC @ 2ml/ltr of water).
  • The pest can also be controlled by spraying of Nicotine sulphate @0.25%.
7) Aphids :
pulgones en plantas de pimiento: métodos naturales | Aerosoles | 2022
  • They destroy the plant by feeding themselves on cell sap of leaves.
  • Application of Monocrotophos @0.05-0.01% or Demeton methyl @0.05-0.02% will help to get rid from aphids.
8) Mites:
Fact sheet - Capsicum broad mite (049)
  • They are tiny spider like creatures which feed in leaves of capsicum.
  • Spraying of cypermethrin 5 EC @3ml/ltr will help to control mites.
  • Spraying of Dimethoate (Rogor @2ml/ltr) or Dicofol (Kelthane @1.5ml/ltr of water) is also effective to control mites.
  •  Apply FYM @ 25 t / ha as basal before last ploughing.
  • Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 20 kg of FYM.
  • Apply 75 % total recommended dose of super phosphate i.e. 703 kg / ha as basal.
  • Install the drip irrigation with main and sub main pipes and place lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5 m.
  • Place the drippers in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
  •  Form raised beds of 120 cm width at an interval of 30 cm and place the laterals at the centre of the each bed.
  • Before planting, wet the beds using drip system for 8-12 hrs.
  • Planting to be done at a spacing of 90 x 60 x 60 cm in the paired row system, using ropes marked at 60 cm spacing.
  • Spray Pendimethalin 1.0 kg a.i. /ha or Fluchloralin 1.0 kg a.i/ha as pre-emergence herbicide at 3rd day after planting.
  •  Gap filling to be done at 7th day after transplanting.
  • For good yield of crop, weeding must be done at proper intervals.
  • Earthing up after 2-3 weeks of transplanting will help to remove weeds from the fields.
  • First weeding is done after 30 days of transplanting then second weeding is done after 60 days of transplanting. 
  • Light irrigation is given immediately after seed sowing.
  • Then next irrigation is given immediately after transplanting, and then later irrigation is given when requires.
  • In arid and semi-arid regions irrigation is required at proper intervals.
  • Spray 1.25 ppm Triacontanol (12.5 mg /10 l of water) on 20th, 40th, 60th and 80th day after transplanting.
  • Spray NAA 10 ppm (10 mg/l of water) on 60 and 90 days after planting.

Capsicum farming mainly gives an average yield of 40-50 qtl/acre.