Botanical Name -Daucus carota L.
Family - Umbellifera

  • Carrot “annual” or “biannual” herb belongs to family of Umbelliferae and it is native of “Europe”.
  • It is a great source of Vitamin A.
  • Carrot is major vegetable crop of India. Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh are major carrot growing states.

1)PC 34: 

  • Red color variety having dark green leaves.
  • Length of root is about 25 cm and root diameter is about 3.15 cm.
  • TSS content is 8.8%. It is ready for harvesting in 90 days after sowing.
  • Gives average yield of 204 qtl/acre.

2)Punjab Black beauty: 

  • Roots are purple black with dark green leaves.
  • It is a rich source of anthocyanins and phenols which protect from cancer.
  • TSS content is about 7.5%.
  • It is ready for harvesting in 93 days after sowing.
  • Gives average yield of 196 qtl/acre.
  • Fresh carrots are used for salad, juice, pickle and Kanji.

3)Punjab Carrot Red: It gives an average yield of 230qtl/acre. 

Other state varieties:

1)Exotic Varieties: 1) USA – Red cored chantenay, Danvers half long, Imperator. 2) New Zealand: Akaroa long red, spring market improved, Wanganui giant. 3)Japan: Suko 4)Belgium : Belgium white 5)Netherlands: Early Horn 6) Australia: Red elephant, western red, yellow 7) France: Chantenay, Nantes, oxheart

2)Pusa Kesar:

  • Red colored carrot variety, developed at IARI, New Delhi.
  • Ready to harvest in 90-110 days and gives average yield of 120 qtl/acre.

3)Pusa Meghali: Orange colored carrot variety, developed at IARI, New Delhi. Gives average yield of 100-120 qtl/acre.

4)New Kuroda: Hybrid suitable for plain as well as hilly areas.

Soil – 

  • The crop needs deep loose loamy soil. 
  • It requires a pH ranging from 6.0 to 7.0 for higher production.
  • Plough land thoroughly and make land weed and clods free.
  • Add well decomposed cow dung of 10 ton/acre and mix well in soils at time of land preparation.
  • Avoid use of undecomposed or free cow dung as it will leads to forking of fleshy roots.


  • Carrot is a cool season crop and will develop a good colour when grown at 15°C to 20°C.


  • Plough land thoroughly and make land weed and clods free.
  • Add well decomposed cow dung of 10 ton/acre and mix well in soils at time of land preparation.
  • Avoid use of undecomposed or free cow dung as it will leads to forking of fleshy roots.

Seed Rate
For sowing of one acre land seed rate of 4-5 kg is sufficient.

Seed Treatment
Before sowing soaked seeds in water for 12-24 hours. It will increased germination percentage.

Time of sowing
August-September is best time for sowing local (desi) varieties of carrots whereas October-November month is ideal for European varieties. 

Use row to row spacing of 45 cm and plant to plant spacing of 7.5 cm.

Sowing Depth
For good growth, sow seeds at depth of 1.5 cm

Method of sowing
For sowing use dibbling method and also use broadcasting method.

Fertilizers requirement (Kg/acre)


5575       50        #

Nutrients Value(Kg/acre)

  • Along with well decomposed cowdung, apply Nitrogen@25kg (in form of Urea@55kg), Phosphorus@12 kg (in form of SSP@ 75kg/acre) and Potash@30kg (in form of MOP@50kg) per acre in soil at time of sowing.
  • Potash is required for good development of roots.
  • Spray Fluchloralin 1 lit a.i./ha immediately after sowing the seeds to control weeds or the first weeding to be done on 15th day of sowing. 
  • Thinning and earthing up should be given on 30th day.
  • Hills: 10 cm between plants.
    Plains: 5 cm between plants.
  • Splitting of roots is a physiological disorder which is usually seen when there is a sudden increase in soil moisture after prolonged drought.
  • Forking is another phenomenon where in the hard soil does not allow the straight growth of tap root which results in formation of forked root.
  • Forked roots and split roots fetch poor price in market.
  • Keeping the soil moisture at optimum condition will help to keep the soil also loose thereby help to avoid splits and forked roots.

Take interculture operation like weeding and hoeing to keep check on weed growth also to provide soil aeration.

  • After sowing, apply first irrigation, it will help in good germination.
  • Depending upon soil type and climate, apply remaining irrigations at interval of 6-7 days in summer and 10-12 days interval in winter month.
  • Overall carrot required three to four irrigations.
  • Avoid excessive irrigation as it will leads misshape of roots and numerous hair growth.
  • Stop irrigation two to three weeks before harvesting, It will help in increase in sweetness and taste of carrot.

1.Aphids –

Aphids | USU

  • Small soft bodied insects on underside of leaves and/or stems of plant usually green or yellow in color .
  • Aphid infestation is heavy it may cause leaves to yellow and/or distorted
  • Necrotic spots on leaves and/or stunted shoots; aphids secrete a sticky, sugary substance called honeydew which encourages the growth of sooty mold on the plants

Biological Control

  • Little is known regarding the parasites of willow carrot aphid.
  • The presence of bloated mummies indicates parasite activity.
  • Predators such as Green lacewing  larvae, Lady Bird beetle, and  larvae prey on this aphid as well as on other aphid species.

Cultural Control

  • Sanitation is important in curbing the spread of the viruses that this insect vectors.
  • Disc all crop residues under as soon as harvest is complete.
  • Keeping fields, ditch banks, and fence lines weed-free may also help in reducing virus inoculum



Deficiency Symptoms

The Number and size of leaves were reduced and pale green colour of leaves change to yellow roots because thin, stiff and fibrous.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of urea @1%



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Plants were shorter, smaller leaves, distorted in shape and pink tinge appear along margin and veins.
  • Formation of shortage root delayed.
Correction Measure

Soil application of recommended dose of Phosphorous fertilizer



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Leaf colour change to pale yellow and brown scorches appear at laber stages. Violet streaks appear on roots.
  • Growth in retarded.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of KCl@1%



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Symptoms are marked on younger plant parts.
  • Leaves become chlorotic fever and roots are smaller.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of CaCl2@0.5-1.0%



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Chlorotic on nature leaves. Which later abscise and fall off.
  • The roots are smaller in size, stiff and pale in colour.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MgSO4@0.5-1.0%



Deficiency Symptoms

Crinkling of leaves; carrot size become smaller

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of borax@0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Chlorosis on younger leaves.
  • Storage roots were reduced in size and become pale in colour.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4@0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms

Young leaves become smaller i.e. little leaf symptoms. and become yellow in color

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of ZnSO4@0.5%

1.Cercospora leaf spot: Cercospora carotae


  • Elongated lesions along the edge of the leaf segment.
  • Non-marginal lesions appear as small, pin-point chlorotic spots which shows develop into a necrotic center surrounded by a diffuse chlorotic border.
  • Coalescence of spots is common.
  • Linear dark lesions develop on the petiole, sometimes girdling the latter and killing the leaf.


  • Seed treatment with Captan 4g/kg
  • Spraying at 10 days interval with Copper oxychloride  or Mancozeb

2.Bacterial blightXanthomonas campestris pv.carotae


  • Irregular brown spot on leaves, dark brown streaks on petioles and a blighting of floral parts.
  • Lesions on foliage begin as small yellow spots.
  • Centre of the spots they become dry and brittle with an irregular halo.


  • Spraying early with Copper oxychloride 0.25 % .

2.Bacterial soft rotErwinia carotovora sp. Carotovora


  • Cells become water soaked, the middle lamella is destroyed and the cells collapse into a soft, watery slimy mass.
  • The rotted tissues are grey to brown. they may be accomplished by a foul odour.
  • The decay develops most rapidly along the core of the root.


  • Dipping in a solution of 1:500 of sodium hypochlorite before storage or transits reduce the disease.

4.Sclerotinia Rot or White mold: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum


  • In storage white mold outbreaks often occur on the stored roots.
  • Only a small percentage of the roots may be initially infected but the fungus mycelium can move very rapidly from carrot to carrot.
  • In a matter of weeks the whole storage container may become a mass of white mold and black sclerotia surrounding each and every carrot.


  • Frequent inspection in storage, low temperatures, aeration and washing in a final water of 2-5 % diluted bleach solution may give adequate control (1 part bleach, (sodium hypochlorite) to 20 parts water.

Carrot Nematodes - Pests and Problems - FarmNest India Farm Community

  • Application of neem cake @ 1 ton/ha at planting.
  • Biofumigation of mustard plants followed by application of neemcake @ 250 kg/ha along with Purpureocillium lilacinum @ 5kg/ha or application of P. lilacinum as seed treatment @ 20g/kg of seed followed by soil application @ 2.5kg/ha along with FYM @ 2.5 t/ha.
  • Depending upon variety, carrots are ready for harvesting in 90-100 days after sowing.
  • Harvesting is done manually by uprooting plants.
  • After harvesting remove green tops from carrots and then they are washed with water.
  • After harvesting grading of carrot depending upon size is carried out.
  • Then they are packed in gunny bags or basket.

25 – 30 t/ha in 100 – 120 days

Growing districts                             Nilgiris, Dindigul and Krishnagiri
Major markets in Tamil Nadu      Mettupalayam, Dindigul, Coimbatore and Chennai
Grade Specification                       Size, diameter or length.