Cauliflower
Botanical Name -Brassica oleraceae var. botrytis
Family -Brasicaceae

  • It work as anti-cancer agent.
  • It promotes heart health, lower cholesterol levels.
  • The major cauliflower producing states are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Haryana and Maharashtra.

1) Pusa Snowball 1: 

  • Crop get ready to harvest in 100 days after transplanting.
  • Outer leaves are upright and curd is compact, of medium size.
  • Color of curd is snow white. It produces yield of 90 qtl per acre.  

2)Pusa Snowball K-1: 

  • Crop get mature late compared to Pusa snowball 1
  • Outer leaves are upright and curd is compact.
  • Curd is of snow white color. It gives yield of 90 qtl/acre.
    Other state varieties:

1)Snowball 16:

  • Late maturing variety.
  • Curds are compact having attractive white color.
  • Gives average yield of 100-125 qtl/acre.

    2)|Pant Shubhra:
     
  • Early maturing variety, suitable for cultivation in Northern India.
  • Curds are of creamy white color.
  • Gives average yield of 80 qtl/acre.

3)Early Kunwari: 

  • Early maturing variety, suitable for cultivation in Haryana, Punjab and Delhi.
  • Gives average yield of 32 qtl/acre.

4)Pusa Deepali: 

  • Developed by IARI, early maturing variety, suitable for cultivation in Northern India.
  • Medium size curd having white color.
  • Gives average yield of 48 qtl/acre.
  • It requires cool moist climate.
  • Deep loamy soils are good with high organic matter
    and good drainage.
  • It can be grown in a pH range of 5.5 to 6.6.

Time of sowing

  • For early season variety June-July is best transplanting time
  • For main season variety August to mid-September and October to first week of November is best transplanting for late varieties.
  • 100 sq.m nursery area/ha.
  • Apply FYM at 300 kg and 10 kg of No.5 mixture (9:9:9) along with 50 g of sodium molybdate and 100 g of borax.
  • Sow the seeds at 10 cm between rows in raised seed beds after drenching with Copper oxychloride (2.5 g/l).
  • Transplant 30 to 40 days old seedlings at a spacing of 45 cm. Avoid land infected with ‗club root disease‘.

Seeds Rate

  • For early season variety seed rate of 500 gm is required whereas for late and main season variety seed rate of 250 gm per acre is required.

Seed Treatment

  • Before sowing dip seeds in hot water (50°C for 30 min) or streptocycline@0.01 gm/Ltr for two hours.
  • After treatment dry them in shade and then sow on bed. Blackrot mostly observed in Rabi.
  • As a preventive measure seed treatment with mercury chloride is essential.
  • For that dip seeds in Mercury chloride@1 gm/Ltr solution for 30 min after that dry them in shed.
  • Crop grown in sandy soils are more prone to stem rot.
  • To prevent it do seed treatment with Carbendazim 50%WP@3 gm/kg of seeds.
  • Raise the seedlings in shade net house.
  • A nursery area of 5 cents with slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha.
  • Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net.
  • Form the raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and above the beds, place the protrays.
  • The Protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cauliflower seedling production.
  • Around 600 protrays are required for of 29,400 seedlings required for one hectare at a spacing of 60 x 45 x 45 cm in three row planting
  • The sterilized cocopeat @ 720kg / ha is mixed with 10kg of neem cake and
    Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each @ 1kg.
  • About 1.25 kg of the cocopeat medium is required for each tray.
  • Bring soil to fine tilth by ploughing land thoroughly.
  • Add well decomposed cow dung and mixed well in soil at time of last ploughing.

Spacing

  • Use spacing of 45×45 cm for main season crop whereas for early and late maturing crop use spacing of 45×30 cm.
  • Sowing Depth
    Sow seeds at depth of 1-2 cm.

    Method of sowing
  • For Sowing dibbling method and transplanting methods can be used.
    Sow seeds in nursery and apply irrigation, fertilizer dose as per requirement.
  • Seedlings are ready to transplant within 25-30 days after sowing.
  • For transplantation use three to four weeks old seedlings.
  • Immediately after transplanting, give first irrigation.
  • Depending upon soil, climatic condition, apply irrigation at interval of 7-8 days in summer season and 10-15 days during winter season.
  • Install drip system with main and sub-main and the inline laterals placed at the interval of 1.5 m.
  • Place the drippers at the interval of 60 cm for 4 LPH or 50 cm for 3.5 LPH,
    in the lateral system.
  • Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place
    the laterals at the centre of each bed.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

UREASSPMURIATE OF POTASH
11015540

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

NITROGENPHOSPHORUSPOTASH
502525
  • Apply well decomposed cow dung@40 tonnes per acre in soil along with Nitrogen@50 kg, Phophorus@25 kg and Potash@25 kg in form of Urea@110 kg, Single Superphosphate@155 kg and Muriate of Potash@40 kg.
  • Apply whole quantity of cowdung, SSP and MOP and half quantity of Urea before transplanting.
  • Apply remaining quantity of Urea four week after transplanting as top dressing.
  • To get better flower (Curd) set and to obtain good yield, spray Water Soluble Fertilizer (19:19:19)@5-7 gm/Ltr water during the early plant growth.
  • 40 days after transplanting take spray of 12:61:00@4-5 gram + microneutrients@2.5 to 3 gram + Boron@1 gm per Ltr water.
  • To improve curd quality, apply Water Soluble Fertilizer 13:00:45@8-10 gm/Ltr of water at the time of curd development.
  • Do soil testing and if Magnesium deficiency is observed to overcome Mg deficiency apply Magnesium sulphate@5 gm/Ltr, 30-35 days after transplantation and for Calcium deficiency apply Calcium Nitrate@5 gm/Ltr, 30-35 days after transplanting.
  • If Hollow and sometimes discolored stems are observed, Also curds become brown and leaves may get roll and curl it is due to Boron deficiency, apply Borax@250 gm-400 gm/acre.
  •  Soil application of 50kg ZnSo4 ha-1 or 37.5 kg ZnSo4 enriched with FYM (1:10 ratio)
  • 3.75 kg CuSo4 as soil application
  • 10 kg borax ha-1
  • 0.25 kg Sodium molybdate

60 x 45 x 45 cm in paired row system

  • Gap filling after 20 days of planting to maintain the population and uniform growth.
  • Hoeing and weeding on 30th and 45th day.
  • Avoid deep intercultivation as it is a shallow rooted crop.

1.Diamond back moth:Plutella xylostella

Symptoms of damage:

  • Young caterpillars cause small yellow mines on leaves
  • Scrapping of epidermal leaf tissues producing typical whitish patches on leaves
  • Full-grown larvae bite holes in the leaves and feeds on curd

Management:

  • Remove and destroy all debris and stubbles after harvest of crop
  • Grow mustard as trap crop at 2:1 ratio (cabbage: mustard) to attract DBM for oviposition at least 10 days ahead of   planting of main crop
  • Spray mustard crop with dichlorvos 76 WSC 0.076% to avoid dispersal of the larvae.

2.Cabbage borer:Hellula undalis

Symptoms of damage:

  • The larva webs the leaves and bore into the stem, stalks or leaf veins

Management:

  • Collect and destroy mechanically caterpillars in the early stages of attack
  • Bacillus thuringiensis @ 2g/lit at primordial stage
  • Cartap hydrochloride @ 500g/ha or malathion 50 EC @500ml/ha

3.Leaf webber: Crocidolomia binotalis

Symptoms of damage:

  • Young larva feeds gregariously on leaves
  • Later webs together the leaves feed within

Management:

  • Remove and destroy the webbed leaves with caterpillars within
  • Set up light traps@1/ha
  • Encourage the activity of parasitoid: Cotesia crocidolomiae
  • Spray malathion 50 EC @ 0.1% or carbaryl 0.2%.

4.Cabbage green semilooper Trichoplusia ni

Symptoms of damage:

  • Scrabbing of leaves initially and defoliation

Management:

  • Hand pick and destroy the caterpillars
  • Set up light trap @1/ha
  • Spray insecticides like malathion 50EC @ 0.1% ha

5.Cabbage butterfly: Pieris brassicae, P.rapae

   

Symptoms of damage:

  • Defoliation
  • Bores into the heads of cabbage

Management:

  • Collect and destroy caterpillars in the early stage of attack
  • Conserve parasitoids like Cotesia glomeratus
  • Spray insecticides like quinalphos 25 EC @1000 ml

6.Tobacco caterpillar: Spodoptera litura

Symptoms of damage:

  • Damage leaves and heads of cabbage and cauliflower
  • Damage leaves of radish and beet root

Management:

  • Plough the soil to expose and kill the pupae
  • Grow castor along border and irrigation channel as trap crop
  • Flood the field to drive out the hibernating larvae
  • Set up light trap @1/ha

7.Cabbage aphid:Brevicoryne brassicae

Symptoms of damage:

  • Yellowing
  • Crinkling and cupping
  • Distorted primordia
  • Presence of white cast skin at the base of the plant

Management:

  • Install yellow sticky trap @12 no/ha to monitor “macropterous” adults (winged adult).
  • Spray neem oil 3 % with 0.5 ml Teepol/lit
  • Spray any one of the following insecticide

8.Mustard aphid: Lipaphis erysimi

Symptoms of damage:

  • Both nymph and adults suck the sap from leaves, buds and pods
  • Curling of infested leaves and at advanced stage plants may wither and die
  • Plants remain stunted and sooty molds grow on the honeydew excreted by the insects

Management:

  • Set up yellow stick trap to monitor aphid population.
  • Conserve the natural enemies viz., Cocciniella septempunctata, Menochilus sexmaculata,
  • Spray dimethoate@ 2 ml /lit

1.Nitrogen

Nitrogen

Deficiency Symptoms

Plants have a uniform yellowish color, with leaves closest to the roots the root system very large oldest leaves will show purpling on underside first and margins of leaves tips will then turn purple followed by whole leaf taking on this color growth is retarded and plants have a poor root system.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of Urea 1% at fortnightly intervals

2.Phosphorus

Phosphorus

Deficiency Symptoms

Pink color pigmentation seen in old leaves; stunted plant growth

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of DAP 2% twice at fortnightly interval

3.Potassium

Potassium

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Appears first on oldest cabbage leaves as spots shiny green leaves turn dull green, leaf margins turn a yellowish green followed by withering mature heads are loose and smaller.
  • In K-deficient cauliflower, leaf tips turn brown, leaves turn inward and can have a crinkled surface.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of K2SO4 1% twice at weekly intervals.

4.Calcium

Calcium

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Symptoms appear first in youngest plant parts.
  • Tip burn with chlorotic young leaves.
  • Severe cases breakdown of the heart and dieback of rootlets.
Correction Measure

Soil application of Gypsum 50 kg/ha.

5.Magnesium

Magnesium

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Oldest leaves are affected first interveinal chlorosis with green veins leaf margins stay green at first, but ultimately dry up on cauliflower small chlorotic leaflets.
  • Poor rooting Magnesium deficiency should not be confused with virus infection.
  • Virus infection would be spotty in a field.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MgSO4 2% twice at fortnightly interval.

6.Sulphur

Sulphur

Deficiency Symptoms

Youngest leaves turned purplish, cupped upward leaf edges rolled in.

Correction Measure

Soil application of Gypsum 50 kg/ha

7.Boron

Boron

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Symptoms occur first on the youngest parts.
  • Youngest leaves turn chlorotic and their tips turn brown later on.
  • Trunk is hollow and when the top is cut off a brownish-colored cavity is found.
  • In B deficient cabbage, cavity is extended into the head.
  • The youngest leaves are chlorotic, leaf edges are scorched and blades turn downward develop poorly.
Correction Measure

Soil application of borax @ 20 kg/ha or Foliar spray of borax 0.5% twice at fortnightly interval.

8.Copper

Copper

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Youngest leaves become chlorotic.
  • Growth is stunted and heads are poorly formed.
  • The plant gives a wilted appearance.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of CuSO4 0.3% twice at fortnightly interval.

9.Manganese

Manganese

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Poor growth interveinal chlorosis with dark green main veins of youngest leaves chlorosis extends into the leaf margins.
  • In severe cases the whole leaf turns yellowish.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MnSO4 0.3% twice at fortnightly interval.

10.Molybdenum

Molybdenum

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Cupping of the leaves and interveinal chlorosis followed by twisting and narrow elongation of leaves.
  • Poor curd development.
  • New leaves become irregular.
Correction Measure

Soil application of 1.0 kg sodium molybdate /ha or Foliar spray of sodium molybdate 0.1% (Soil application of 120kg N, 75 kg P and Mo 1.5kg/ha, 1 kg B/ha).

11.Zinc

Zinc

Deficiency Symptoms

Young leaves become small; curd color will be affected

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of ZnSO4 @0.5%

1)Wilt:

Verticillium wilt | Agrio

Symptoms-

  • Dropping of entire leaves along with yellowing of crops.
  • Wilting or drying of entire plant is seen.
  • It may be due to root rot.

Management-

  • To control wilt cause due to root rot, drench Trichoderma bio fungus@2.5 kg/500 Ltr water, near to roots of plants.
  • Keeping checking crop losses due to fungal diseases.
  • Drench root zone with Ridomil gold@2.5 gm/Ltr water.
  • Give need based irrigation.
  • Avoid flood irrigation.

2) Downy Mildew.

   

Symptoms-

  • Appearance of purplish-brown spots observed on lower side of leaves along with greyish white mold on leaf underside.

Management-

  • Sanitation and crop rotation help in reducing infection.
  • If infestation of downy is observed, it can be controlled by combined spraying of (Metalaxyl + Mancozeb)@2gm per litre.
  • Take three sprays with 10 days interval.

3.Wire stem: Rhizoctonia solani

Symptoms

  • Wirestem can be a seed problem where cauliflower or other cruciferous transplants are grown crowded together in unsterilized soil or seedling beds.
  • This disease makes the seedlings unsuitable for transplanting since many of the affected plants will die or grow poorly.

Management

  • Sterilized soil and seedbed drenches with Copper oxychloride 0.25% will give good disease control
 
  • After developing proper head harvesting can be done.
  • Carry out harvesting in morning or evening time.
  • After harvesting keep product in cool place.

After harvesting, do sorting and grading depending upon curd size.

Hills : 20 – 30 t/ha
Plains : 15 – 20 t/ha

Crop Growing districts                                       Dindigul, Theni, Coimbatore, Tiruppur
Major markets in Tamil Nadu                          Mettupalayam, Coimbatore, Ottanchathiram, Koyambedu
Grade Specification                                          Size and colour

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