Botanical Name - Allium sativum
Family - Alliaceae

Garlic is a native of Southern Europe and a popular bulb crop cultivated throughout Asia. It is used as spice in many dishes. It has excellent medicinal properties. It is rich source of Protein, Phosphorus, Potassium etc. It helps in digestion; also it reduces cholesterol in human blood. Major Garlic producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Haryana.

1)PG 17: Plant leaves are dark green and bulbs are white and attractive with 25-30 cloves per bulb. Ready to harvest in 165-170 days. It gives average yield of 50 qtl per acre.

2)Yamuna Safed (G-1):
Bulbs are compact with silvery white appearance. Cloves are of sickle shape with 25-30 cloves per bulb.

3)Yamuna Safed 2(G-50):
Bulbs are compact with attractive white creamy flesh contain 35-40 cloves per bulb.

4)Yamuna Safed 3 (G 282):
Bulbs are creamy white and bigger in size. Number of cloves are 15-16 per bulb.

5)Yamuna Safed 4 (G 323):
Bulbs are silvery white and contain number of cloves 20-25 per bulb.

Other States Variety

1)Bhima Purple:
Ready to harvest in 120-135 days. Bulb having attractive purple color. Gives average yield of 24-28 qtl/acre.

2)VL Garlic 1:
Bulbs are of whitish color. Ready to harvest in 180-190days. Gives average yield of 56-60 qtl/acre in hills and 36-40 qtl/acre in plains.

3)Yamuna Safed 5:
Ready to harvest in 150-160 days. Gives average yield of 68-72 qtl/acre.


Well drained friable soil rich in organic matter with a pH range of 6– 7 is ideal. Extreme acidic soils as well as heavy soils are not suited.


Garlic can be grown at elevation of 1200–2000m from the mean sea level. It requires short days, cool(12–18°C) moist period during vegetative growth.

Give three to four deep ploughing and bring soil to fine tilth. Add well decomposed cow dung to increase organic content of soil. Then levelled soil and divide into small plots and channels.

Time of sowing
Optimum time for sowing is last week of September to first week of October.

1500 – 1600 kg/ha

Seed Rate
Use seed rate of 225-250 kg per acre.

Seed Treatment

Seed treatment with Thiram@2 gm/kg of seed + Benomyl 50WP@1 gm/liter water effectively controls damping off and smut diseases. After chemical treatment, seed treatment with bio agent Trichoderma viride@2 gm/kg of seed is recommended, it help in reducing early seedling diseases and soil borne inoculum.

Keep spacing of 7.5 cm between two plant and 15 cm between the rows.
Sowing Depth

Sow garlic cloves 3 to 5 cm deep keeping their growing heads upward.

Method of sowing
For sowing of garlic use Kera method. Sowing can be done manually or with help of Machine. Cover cloves with soil and provide light irrigation.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

110155As per soil test


Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)



Apply two tonnes of Farm Yard Manure or well decomposed cow dung 10 days before sowing. Apply Nitrogen@50 kg, Phophorus@25 kg in form of Urea@110 kg and Single Super Phosphate@155 kg per acre. Apply whole quantity of SSP before sowing and nitrogen should be applied in three equal splits. Apply Urea 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing.

WSF: 10-15 days after transplanting, spray 19:19:19 along with micronutrient@2.5 to 3 gm/Ltr of water.

N should not be applied in the form of urea. Spray 1500 ppm of CCC or MH on 30th day of planting. Frequency of irrigation is reduced to minimise rubberisation , 0.2 % Boron, 0.25 % Zinc sulphate are applied on 30th, 60th and 90th days after planting

Initially garlic seedlings grow slowly. So it is better to use chemical herbicides than hand weeding to avoid injury. To control weeds take spray of Pendimethalin@1 Ltr/200 Ltr water/acre within 72 hours of sowing. Apply Oxyfluorfen@425ml/200Ltr of water per acre as post emergence herbicide 7 days after planting. Two to three weeding are recommended for weed control. First hand weeding should be done one month after sowing and second hand weeding to be done one month after first hand weeding.

Depending upon climatic conditions and soil type decide irrigation amount and frequency. Apply first irrigation immediately after sowing then depending upon need apply irrigation with interval of 10-15days.

1)Thrips: If it is not controlled properly, can cause yield loss up to 50%. Mostly observed in dry weather. They suck sap from the foliage and results in curling of leaves, leaves become cup shaped or curved upward.

To check severity of thrips incidence, keep blue sticky traps @6-8 per acre. If infestation observed in field take spray of Fipronil@30 ml/15 Ltr water or Profenophos@10 ml or Carbosulfan@10 ml+ Mancozeb@25 gm/10 Ltr water by 8-10 days interval.


2)Maggots: Infestation observed in January-February Month. They feed on roots cause browning of leaves. Base of plant become watery.

If infestation is observed, apply Carbaryl@4 kg or Phorate@4 kg to the soil and give light irrigation. Apply Chlorpyriphos @1 Ltr/acre alongwith irrigation water or sand.

1)Purple blotch and stem phylium blight: 

In severe infestation may cause yield loss up to 70%. Deep purple lesions are observed on leaves. Yellow streaks get turn brown and extend along the blade.

Take spray of Propineb70%WP@350 gm/acre/150 ltr of water, twice at 10 days interval.


Nematode can be controlled by the application of Carbofuran 3 G 1 kg a.i./ha during 30 days after planting or by application of Paecilomyces lilacinus @ 2.5 kg/ha

Crop becomes ready in 135-150 days after sowing. Crop can be harvested when 50% leaves start yellowing and drying. Stop irrigation atleast 15days before harvesting. Plants are pull out or uprooted, then tied into small bundle and kept in field or shade for 2-3days. After proper drying, dry stalks are removed and bulbs are cleaned.

16-17 t/ha