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Ginger
Botanical Name -Zingiber officinale
Family -Zingiberaceae

Importance

  • Ginger, known as “Adrakh” is most important major spice crop of India.
  • India is leading producer of Ginger. Karnataka, Orissa, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat are major ginger producing states.

Varieties

1)IISR Varada:

  • It gives high yield of fresh as well as dry ginger yield.
  • Ready to harvest in 200 days.
  • It gives an average yield of 90 qtl/acre.  
    2)IISR Mahima
    3)Karthika
    4)Suprabha
    5)Suruchi

Other States Variety
1)Green Ginger variety:
Rio-De-Janerio, china, Varadha.
2)Dry Ginger varieties:
Maran, Nadia.

Soil and Climate

Soil –

  • It gives best results, when grown on well drained loamy soils also in sandy or clay loam or red loamy soils.
  • Avoid water stagnation in field as it cannot survive in water logged conditions. Ideal pH range of 6-6.5 is required for good growth of crop.
  • Avoid soil on which previously ginger was taken.
  • Do not cultivate ginger crop on same site year after year.

Climate-

  • Ginger loves hot, humid conditions and rich soil with lots of nutrients.
  • In our cool climate the plants do well in full sun; in more southern locations the plants may need partial shade.

Season

Time of sowing
Sowing is done by first week of May- June.

Seed Rate

Seed Rate

  • For sowing, select fresh and diseased free rhizomes (mother rhizomes as well as fingers) are used.
  • Seed rate of 480-720 kg is sufficient for sowing one acre land.

Seed Treatment

Seed treatment

  • Before sowing, carry out rhizome treatment with Mancozeb@3 gm/Ltr of water. Dip rhizomes for 30min in solution.
  • It will protect rhizomes from fungal infestation. After treatment, dry rhizomes in shade for 3-4 hours.

Land Preparation

  • Prepare field by ploughing land two – three times.
  • After ploughing do planking operation.
  • For turmeric planting, beds of 15 cm height, 1 m width and of convenient length are prepared.
  • Keep distance of 50 cm between beds.

Spacing

Spacing
keep plant distance of 15-20 cm between the row and 30 cm between two plant.

Sowing Depth
Depth should be near about 3-4 cm.

Method of sowing

Direct sowing also transplanting method is used for planting.

Fertilizer

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH
55 60 16

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

NITROGEN PHOSPHORUS POTASH
25 10 10
  • At time of field preparation, apply well decomposed cow dung@150 qtl/acre in soil. Apply N:P:K@25:10:10 kg/acre in form of Urea@55 kg/acre, SSP@60 kg/acre and MOP@16 kg/acre.
  • Full dose of Potash and Phosphorus are applied at time of rhizome planting. Nitrogen dose is given in two equal splits.
  • First half dose of N is given 75 days after planting and remaining half dose is given three month after planting.

Weed Control

  • Third day after plantation take spray of Atrazine@4-5 gm/ltr on moist soil.
  • To kill weeds that grow after first spray of weedkiller, 12-15 days after plantation take spray of Glyphosate@4-5 ml/Ltr water.
  • After weedicide application, cover field with green manure or paddy straw.
  • Earthing up operation is carried to enhanced root development. 50-60 days after planting take first earthing operation and next after 40 days.

Irrigation

  • It is grown as rainfed crop so provide irrigation depending upon rainfall intensity and rainfall frequency.
  • After planting, crop is mulched with green leaves@50 qtl/acre.
  • Repeat mulching@20 qtl/acre after every fertilizer application.   

Plant Protection

1.Rhizome scale : Aspidiella hartii

Symptoms of damage:
  • Field infestation

    • Plants look devitalized, pale and withered before drying completely.
    • In such cases at the time of harvest minute yellowish crawlers can be seen moving in large numbers and this is the potential stage of dissemination.
Management:
  • Discard and do not store severely infested rhizomes
  • Collect and destroy damaged leaves
  • Select healthy rhizomes free from scale infestation for seed materials
  • Treat seed material with quinalphos 0.075% (for 20-30 minutes) before storage and also before sowing in case the infestation persists.
  • Apply well rotten sheep manure @ 10 t/ ha in two splits or poultry  manure in 2 splits followed by drenching dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml or phosalone 35 EC @  2ml /lit of water

2) Shoot borer : Conogethes punctiferalis

borer dichocrocisPest of Turmeric and Ginger

Symptoms of damage:
  • Yellowing and drying of leaves of infested pseudostems.
  • The presence of a bore-hole on the pseudostem through which frass is extruded and the withered and yellow central shoot

Management:

  • Spraying malathion 0.1% at 30 day intervals during July to October is effective in controlling the pest infestation.
  • The spraying has to be initiated when the first symptom of pest attack is seen on the inner most leaves on the pseudostem.

3.Leaf roller: Udaspes folus

gdemon-cat-Dscn6640

Symptoms of damage:

  • Leaves become folded or rolled longitudinally
  • Complete defoliation

Management:

  • A spray with carbaryl (0.1%) or dimethoate (0.05%) may be undertaken when the severe infestation   
  • Spray the following dissolved in 1 lit of water, Bavisitin 2g +Mancozeb 2g + Teefol 1 ml.

4.Thrips: Panchaetothrips indicus 

Heliohaem_sm

Symptoms of damage:

  • Leaves become rolled up
  • Turn pale and gradually dry-up

Management:

Spray insecticides like quinalphos 0.025% or phosalone 0.07%

Nutritional Deficiency

1.Nitrogen

Nitrogen

Deficiency Symptoms

Yellowing of older leaves; size of the leaf become small; stunted plant growth

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of [email protected]%

 

2.Potassium

Potassium

Deficiency Symptoms

Marginal chlorosis occur older leaves

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of [email protected]%

3.Iron

Iron

Deficiency Symptoms

Chlorosis occur in young leaves

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of [email protected]

Disease

 

1.Soft rot or rhizome rot : Pythium aphanidermatum/ P. vexans / P. myriotylum

Symptoms

  • The infection starts at the collar region of the pseudostems and progresses upwards as well as downwards.
  • At a later stage root infection is also noticed.
  • Foliar symptoms appear as light yellowing of the tips of lower leaves which gradually spreads to the leaf blades
  • In early stages of the disease, the middle portion of the leaves remain green while the margins become yellow.

Management

  • Treatment of seed rhizomes with mancozeb 0.3% for 30 minutes before storage and once again before planting reduces the incidence of the disease.
  • Cultural practices such as selection of well drained soils for planting is important for managing the disease
  • Seed rhizomes are to be selected from disease free gardens, since the disease is also seed borne.
  • Once the disease is located in the field, removal of affected clumps
  • Drenching the affected and surrounding beds with mancozeb 0.3% checks the spread of the disease.

2) Bacterial wilt : Ralstonia solanacearum

Symptoms

  • Water soaked spots appear at the collar region of the pseudostem and progresses upwards and downwards.
  • The first conspicuous symptom is mild drooping and curling of leaf margins of the lower leaves which spreads upwards
  • Yellowing starts from the lowermost leaves and gradually progresses to the upper leaves. In the advanced stage, the plants exhibit severe yellowing and wilting symptoms.
  • The vascular tissues of the affected pseudostems show dark streaks. The affected pseudostem and rhizome when pressed gently extrudes milky ooze from the vascular strands

Management

  • The cultural practices adopted for managing soft rot are also to be adopted for bacterial wilt.
  • The seed rhizomes may be treated with streptocycline 200ppm for 30 minutes and shade dried before planting.
  • Once the disease is noticed in the field all beds should be drenched with Bordeaux mixture 1% or copper oxychloride 0.2%.

3) Blight and leaf spots:  Phyllosticta zingiberi

Symptoms

  • The disease starts as water soaked spot and later turns as a white spot surrounded by dark brown margins and yellow halo. The lesions enlarge and adjacent lesions coalesce to form necrotic areas.
  • The disease spreads through rain splashes during intermittent showers.
  • The incidence of the disease is severe in ginger grown under exposed conditions. 

Management

  • The disease can be controlled by spraying Copper oxychloride 0.25 % or Mancozeb 0.2%.

 

 

Harvest

 In 8months crop is ready for harvesting. For fresh spice purpose, ginger is harvested from 6th month and if it is to be used for processing, then it is harvested after 8 months. Right time for harvesting of ginger is when leaves gets yellow and dry out completely. Remove rhizomes by dugging and after harvesting clean rhizomes by thoroughly washing in water for 2 to 3 times. Then dry them in shades for 2-3days.

Post Harvesting

For dry ginger purpose, only the outer skin is to be peeled and then dried in the sun for a week. Outer skin is removed with help of special knife or split bamboos with pointed end. Yield of dry ginger is about 16-25% of green ginger.

Storage: Fresh, disease free rhizomes are selected then treated with solution of Carbendazim + Mancozeb@40 gm/10 ltr of water for 30 min. It will prevent rotting of rhizome in storage. Then dry the rhizomes in shade. Store dried rhizome in pit of convenient size, covered with plank having 2-3 holes for aeration. Before storing rhizomes in pit, spread 1 inch thickness sand layers.

 
Yield

12 – 15 t/ha.