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Gram (Chick Pea)
Botanical Name – Cicer arietinum L.
Family -Leguminosae

Introduction

  • Gram is an important rabi pulse crop .
  • Gram commonly known as chick pea or Bengal gram is the most important pulse crop of India.
  • It is used for human consumption as well as for feeding to animals.
  • Fresh green leaves are used as vegetable while straw of chickpea is an excellent fodder for cattle. The grains are also used as vegetable.
  • India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Burma and Turkey are main gram growing countries. India ranks first in the world in respect of production and acreage followed by Pakistan.
  • In India, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra and Punjab are major gram producing states.
  • On basis of size, color and shape of seeds, gram is divided into two group1) Desi or brown gram 2) Kabuli or white gram.
  • Yield potential of kabuli is poor as compared to Desi gram.

Climate

  • Gram is a winter season crop but severe cold and frost  are injurious to it.
  • It is primarily a crop of low-rainfall areas, but gives good returns  in irrigated conditions as well.
  • Excessive rains soon after sowing or at flowering and  fruiting or hail-storms at ripening cause heavy loss.
  • Sometimes there is an early onset  of summer which reduces the growing period of this crop, hastens maturity and  reduces the yield. 

Temperature24°C – 30°CRainfall60-90 cmSowing Temperature24°C – 28°CHarvesting Temperature30°C – 32°C
Soil

  • It can be grown on wide variety of soils.
  • Sandy loam to clay loam is considered to be most suitable soil for gram cultivation.
  • Soil having water logging problem are not suitable for cultivation.
  • Saline alkaline soil are not suitable.
  • pH in the range of 5.5 to 7 is ideal for sowing.
  • Avoid sowing of same crop continuously in field.
  • Follow proper crop rotation.
  • Crop rotation with cereals help in controlling soil borne disease.
  • Common rotation are Kharif fallow-chick pea, Kharif fallow– gram + wheat / barley/ raya, Chari-gram, bajra-gram, rice/maize-gram.

Popular Varieties
1. Gram 1137:

  • It is recommended for hilly areas.
  • It gives an average yield of 4.5qtl/acre.
  • It is resistant to virus.

2.PBG 7 :

  • Recommended for cultivation in whole Punjab.
  • This variety is moderately resistant to Ascochyta blight and resistant to wilt and dry root rot.
  • Grain size is medium and gives average yield of 8 qtl/acre.
  • It gets mature in 159 days.

3.CSJ 515:

  • Suitable under irrigated condition, seeds are small and are of brown colour weight 17 gm/100 seed.
  • It is moderately resistant to dry root rot, and tolerant to ascochyta blight.
  • Gets mature in 135 days. And gives average yield of 7 qtl/acre.

4.BG 1053:

  • It is a Kabuli variety. It is early in flowering and matures in 155 days.
  • Seeds are creamy white and bold in size.
  • Gives Average yield of 8 qtl/acre.
  • Suitable for cultivation for throughout state under irrigated condition.

5. L 550:

  • Kabuli variety.
  • Semi spreading and early flowering variety.
  • Matures in 160 days. Seeds are of creamy white color.
  • It gives average yield of 6 qtl/acre.

6 L 551:

  • It is kabuli variety.
  • It is resistant to wilt disease.
  • Ready to harvest in 135-140 days.
  • It gives average yield of 6-8 qtl/acre.

7.GNG 1958:

  • Cultivated under irrigated areas also suitable for normal sown irrigated condition.
  • It has brown seed colour.
  • Ready to harvest in 145 days.
  • Gives average yield of 8-10 qtl/acre.

8.GNG 1969:

  • Cultivated under irrigated areas also suitable for normal sown irrigated condition.
  • It possess creamy beige seed colour.
  • Ready to harvest in 146 days.
  • Gives average yield of 9 qtl/acre.

9.GLK 28127:

  • Suitable for cultivation under irrigated areas, seeds are of large size with light yellow or creamy colour with irregular owl head.
  • Ready to harvest in 149 days.
  • Gives average yield of 8 qtl/acre.

10. GPF2:

  • The plants are tall with erect growth habit.
  • It is highly resistive to Ascochyta blight and will complex.
  • It gets matures in about 165 days.
  • It gives average yield of 7.6 qtl/acre.

11.Aadhar (RSG-963):

  • It is moderately resistant to Wilt, dry root rot, B.G.M and Collor rot, pod borer, & Nematodes.
  • Ready to harvest in 125-130 days.
  • Gives average yield of 6 qtl/acre.

12.Anubhav (RSG 888):

  • Suitable for cultivation in rainfed area.
  • It is moderately resistant to wilt and root rot.
  • Ready to harvest in 130-135 days.
  • Gives average yield of 9 qtl/acre.

13.Pusa Chamatkar:

  • Kabuli variety.
  • It is tolerant to wilt.
  • Ready to harvest in 140-150 days.
  • It gives average yield of 7.5 qtl/acre.

14.PBG 5:

  • Released in 2003.
  • variety matures in 165 days and it gives an average yield of 6.8 qtl /acre.
  • It has medium thick grains and dark brown in color.
  • The variety is tolerant to wilt and root diseases.

15.PDG 4:

  • Released in 2000.
  • The variety matures in 7.8qtl /acre and it gives an average yield of 160 days.
  • The variety is tolerant to damping off, root rot and wilt disease.

16.PDG 3: It gives an average yield of 7.2 qtl /acre and the variety matures in 160 days. 17. L 552:

  • Released in 2011.
  • The variety matures in 157 days and it gives an average yield of 7.3 qtl /acre.
  • It has thick grains and the average weight of 100 grains is 33.6gm.

Other States Variety 18.C 235:

  • Ready to harvest in 145-150 days.
  • It is tolerant to stem rot and blight disease.
  • Grains are of medium and yellowish brown color.
  • Gives average yield of 8.4-10 qtl/acre.

19.G 24:

  • Semi-spreading variety, suitable for rainfed conditions.
  • Ready to harvest in 140-145 days.
  • Gives average yield of 10-12 qtl/acre.

20.G 130:

  • Medium duration variety.
  • Gives average yield of 8-12 qtl/acre.

21.Pant G 114:

  • Ready to harvest in 150 days.
  • It is resistant to blight.
  • It give average yield of 12-14 qtl/acre.

22.C 104:

  • Kabuli gram varieties, Suitable for Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Gives average yield of 6-8 qtl/acre.

23.Pusa 209:

  • Ready to harvest in 140-165 days.
  • Gives average yield of 10-12 qtl/acre.

 
Land Preparation

  • Gram does not  require fine tilth.
  • The soil should be opened up well, as loose and well-aerated soil restricts the  wilt attack and increases the grain yield. Deep  tillage upto 22.5 cm depth has been found to  increase the yield. It also helps the plants to  develop deep roots. 
  • Very fine and compact seedbed is not good for chick pea, it required rough seed bed.
  • If it is cultivated as mix crop the land should be plough to fine tilth.
  • If chick pea crop is taken after a kharif fellow carry out one deep ploughing during the monsoon as it will help to conserved rain water.
  • Before sowing plough the land only once.
  • If soil appears to be deficient in moisture run a roller about a week before sowing.

Sowing
Time of sowing

  • The optimum sowing  time for desi gram under rainfed conditions is  from 10 October to 25 October.
  • Under irrigated  conditions both desi and kabuli gram should  be sown from 25 October to 10 November.
  • The early-sown crop suffers from wilt owing to  high temperature at that time. It also attains  excessive vegetative growth which results in  poor seed-set.
  • On the other hand, the late sown crop makes poor vegetative growth, with  inadequate root development which results in  low yield.
  • This can be partly compensated by  increasing the seed rate.

Sowing on right time is necessary as early sowing leads to excessive vegetative growth, also crop get affected due to wilt while late sowing, crop make poor vegetative growth and inadequate root development.SpacingSeed should be spaced 10 cm apart allowing 30-40 cm between rows.Sowing DepthThe seed should be placed 10-12.5 cm deep.Method of sowingIn north India, it is sown by pora method.  
Seed
Seed Rate

  • Use seed rate of 15-18 kg/acre for desi variety 
  • 37 kg/acre for Kabuli variety.
  • Increased seed rate of desi gram to 27 kg/acre in case sowing is to done in second fortnight of November
  • 36 kg/acre in case sowing is to be done in first fortnight of December.

Seed Treatment

  • Mix Trichoderma @ 2.5 kg/acre + decomposed cow dung @ 50 kg then cover it with jute bags for 24-72 hrs.
  • Then spray this on moist soil before sowing to control soil borne disease.
  • To prevent seeds from soil borne disease they should be treated with fungicide Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP (Saaf) @ 2 gm/kg of seed before sowing. In termite affected soil, treat seeds with Chlorpyrifos 20 EC @10 ml / kg of seeds before sowing.
  • Inoculate seed with Mesorhizobium, it will increased productivity of gram and increased yield by 7%.
  • For that first moisten seed with water then apply single packet of Mesorhizobium on seeds.
  • After inoculation dry seeds in shed.

Use any one fungicides from below:

Fungicide name Quantity (Dosage per kg seed)

Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP

       2 gm
Thiram        3 gm

  
Fertilizer

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

Crops UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH
Desi 13 50 As per soil test result
Kabuli 13 50 As per soil test result

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

Crops UREA SSP MURIATE OF POTASH
Desi 6 8 As per soil test result
Kabuli 6 16 As per soil test result
  • For Desi varieties for irrigated as well as unirrigated areas, apply Nitrogen in form of Urea@13 kg/acre and Phosphorus in form of Super Phosphate@50 kg/acre at time of sowing.
  • Whereas for Kabuli varieties, apply Urea@13 kg/acre and Super Phosphate @100 kg/acre at time of sowing.
  • For efficient use of fertilizer apply all the fertilizers are drilled in furrows at a depth of 7-10 cm.

Irrigation management

  • Where irrigation facilities are available, give a heavy pre-sowing irrigation(rauni). It will ensure deep rooting for proper utilization of soil moisture.
  • Afterwards,  give one more irrigation between mid-December and end-January depending upon the  date of sowing and the rainfall.
  • This irrigation reduces the incidence of wilt disease.
  • In  no case, should this irrigation be given earlier than 4 weeks after sowing. If early rains  are received, delay the irrigation.
  • Excess of irrigation enhances vegetative growth  and depresses grain yield. Do not irrigate the crop if it is sown after rice particularly  on heavy soils.
  • Irrigation applied on such soils causes heavy damage to the crop. 
  • Irrigation can be applied to gram sown after rice on raised beds under water stress  conditions especially at pod initiation stage. 

Weed Control

  • To keep check on weeds, take first hand weeding or with wheel hoe 25-30days after sowing and second if needed after 60 days of sowing.
  • Simultaneously for effective weed control, pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin @ 1Litre /200Litre water on third day after sowing for one acre land.
  • It will help for controlling annual weeds.
  • In case of less infestation, hand weeding or inter culture with the help of hoe is always better than herbicides because inter culture operations improve aeration in the soil.

  
Crop Protection

Pest and their control:

1.Termite: Odontotermes obesus

Symptoms-

  • It feeds on root or near root zone of crop.
  • Affected plant show symptom of drying up.
  • It can be easily uprooted.
  • It can affect at seedling stage and also near maturity.

Management-

  • To protect seeds from termite, treat seeds with Chlorpyriphos 20EC@10ml/kg of seeds.
  • If infestation occur in standing crop, drench with Imidacloprid@4ml/10litre of water or Chlorpyriphos@5ml/10Ltr of water.

2.Cut worm: Agrotis ipsilon

Symptoms-

  • Caterpillar remain hide in soil at depth of 2-4 inch.
  • It cut at base of plant, branches or stem.
  • Eggs are laid down in soil.

Management

  • Adopt crop rotation.
  • Use only well decomposed cow dung.
  • Avoid plantation of Tomato-Okra near gram field.
  • In low infestation spray Quinalphos 25EC@400 ml/200-240 litres water per acre.
  • Severe infestation Spray with Profenophos 50EC@600 ml/acre in 200-240 litres of water.

3.Gram pod borer : Helicoverpa armigera

Symptoms- 

  • This is the most serious pest of chickpea and causes damage up to 75% reduction in yield.
  • skeletonization of leaves also feeds on flower and green pods.
  • On pods they make circular holes and feed on grains.
    Management-
  • Install Pheromone traps for Helicoverpa armigera @5/acre.
  • At early stage use HNPV or Neem extract @ 50 gm/litre of water.
  • Use of chemicals are necessary after ETL level. (ETL: 2 early instar larvae/plant or 5-8 eggs/plant).
  • Spray Deltamethrin 1%+Triazophos35%@ 25 ml/10 litre water when crop is at 50% flowering stage.
  • Spray Emamectin Benzoate 5%G@3 gm/10 litre of water 15 days after first spray of Deltamethrin + Triazophos.

4.Semilooper : Autographa nigrisigna

Symptoms of damage

  • Skeletinization of leaves and the plant becomes whitish
  • The larvae feed on leaf buds, flowers, tender pods and developing seeds.
  • Ragged and irregular pod. 

 

Knowledge Bank | Green Semilooper in Soybean
Management

  • Deep summer ploughing in 2-3 years to eliminate quiescent pupa.
  • Collect and destroy larvae and adults to the extent possible
  • Install pheromone traps at a distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for each insect pest.
  • Install Bird perches @ 50/ha.
  • Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population.
  • Control is achieved by releasing of Trichogramma chlionis at weekly intervals @1.5 lakh/ha/ week for four times.
  • Spray NSKE 5% twice followed by triazophos 0.05%.
  • Apply any one of insecticides at 25 kg/ha. Chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP, quinalphos 4D, carbaryl 5D

Nutritional Deficiency

1 Nitrogen

Nitrogen

Deficiency Symptoms-

Growth will be stunted and leaves a very pale green.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of 1% Urea

2.Phosphorus

Phosphorus

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Growth is stunted, Leaves are tilted upward. 
  • Leaves show brown spots after flowering. 
  • Poor root development.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of 1% DAP

3.Potassium

Potassium

Deficiency Symptoms-

  • Chlorotic areas increase as deficiency becomes more severe, then they merge so that chlorosis occurs around the edges of the leaf.
  • As deficiency becomes more severe, chlorosis progresses toward the center of the leaf.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of 1% KCl

4.Sulphur

Sulphur

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Deficient plants become chlorotic.
  • New leaves are first affected, but gradually the entire plant becomes uniformly chlorotic.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of CaSO4 @ 0.5%

5.Iron

Deficiency Symptoms-

Iron

  • Symptoms appear first on young emerging leaves. 
  • Interveinal areas turn chlorotic and become yellow. 
  • Whole leaf turn yellow and white. 
  • Stunted growth and poor pod set.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5%

6.Zinc

Zinc

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Leaves chlorotic and then turn to rusty brown colour. 
  • Veins remain green. 
  • Leaves and shoots smaller than normal. 
  • Yellowing in interveinal areas.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of ZnSO4@ 05.%

Diseases

Disease and their control:

1 Blight: Alternaria alternata

Symptoms-

  • Dark brown spot with dot like bodies developed on stem, branches, leaflet and pods.
  • In case of excessive rain whole plant get severely affected with blight.

Management-

  • For cultivation use resistant varieties.
  • Before sowing carryout seed treatment with fungicide.
  • Spray with Indofil M-45 or Captan @360 gm/100 ltr of water per acre.
  • If necessary repeat the spray at interval of 15 days.

2.Botrytis Gray Mold: Botrytis cineria

Symptoms-

  • Small water soaked spots are observed on leaflets.
  • Spots on infected leaves become dark brown.
  • In severe infestation, brown necrotic spots appear on twigs, petioles, leaves and flowers of the plant on attaining full vegetative growth.
  • The affected stem finally breaks and the plant dies.

Management-

  • Before sowing carry out seed treatment.
  • If infestation is observed, spray crop with Carbendazim@2 gm/ltr of water.

3.Rust:

Symptoms-

  • This disease is more severe in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Small, round to oval, light or dark brown pustules are formed on the under surface of the leaves.
  • In later stage, pustules get black and affected leaves get defoliate.

Management-

  • Use rust resistant varieties for cultivation.
  • Spray the crop with Mancozeb 75WP@2 gm/ltr of water.
  • With interval of 10 days take two more sprays.

4.Wilt: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri

Symptoms-

  • This disease causes considerable loss in yield.
  • In can affect at the seedling stage as well as in an advanced stage of plant growth.
  • Initially affected plant show dropping of petioles and gives dull green color.
  • Afterwards all leaves turn yellow and become straw colored.

Management-

  • Grow resistant varieties.
  • In primary stage of wilt, to control mix 1 kg of Trichoderma in 200 kg well decomposed cow dung and keep it for 3 days, then apply it in wilt affected area.
  • If wilt is observed in fields, spray 300 ml Propiconazol with 200 litre of water per acre.

5.Powdery mildew: Oidiopsis taurica

Symptom
  • Crop plants of all the age group are affected.
  • With the onset of the disease white powdery mass appear on the leaves.
  • Small patches of white powder coating initially develop on both surfaces of older leaves.
  • Affected leaves turn purple and then die.

Management

  • Field and crop sanitation.
  • Dithane M-45 or Carbendazim at 2.5 g/lit should be sprayed.

6.Dry root rot:  Rhizoctonia bataticola 

Symptom
  • The disease appears from flowering to podding stage as scattered dried plants.
  • The leaves and stem are become straw colored.
  • Affected plants wither and spread across the entire field.
  • The roots of infected plants become brittle and dry.

Management

  • Deep ploughing in summer
  • Grow cultivars resistant to dry root rot.
  • Sowing should always be done on the recommended time.
  • Seed treatment with T. viride @4g/kg or P. fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seed or Carbendazim or Thiram 2g/kg of seed.
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1g/lit or P. fluorescens / T. viride 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM.

    
Harvesting

  • When plant gets dry and leaves turn reddish brown and start shedding, plant is ready to harvest.
  • Cut the plant with sickle.
  • Sundry the harvested crop for five to six days.
  • After proper drying, carry out threshing by beating the plants with sticks or by trampling under the feet of bullocks.

Post Harvest

Grains of harvested crop must be well dried before storage. And take care to avoid the pulse beetle infestation in storage.