Botanical Name - Citrus limon
Family -Rutaceae

  • Citrus is an important fruit crop.
  • Lemon is one of the important category of citrus.
  •  It is mainly known for its pulp and juice throughout the world.
  • Different citrus fruits are used throughout the world as food or juice.
  • In central India, Nagpur santra is grown on a large scale.
  • Mandarin Production states are Assam, Dibrugarh and Brahmaputra valley
  •  In India Citrus cultivation is done on an area of about 923 thousand hectare with annual production of 8608 thousand metric tons.
  • In Punjab citrus is grown on 39.20 hectares of land.

1) Punjab Baramasi: 

  • Shoots dropping are usually ground touching.
  • Lemon has yellow fruits, round shaped with tapering base.
  • Seedless fruits and are juicy in nature.
  • The average fruit yield is 84 kg per tree.

2) Eureka:

  • Semi-vigorous tree.
  • Lemon-yellow skin color, juice is strongly acidic having excellent flavor.
  • Fruit ripens in the month of August.

3) Punjab Galgal: 

  • Vigorous trees with light green foliage color.
  • Medium size, oval shaped fruit.
  • Juice is very acidic with 8-10 seeds per fruit.
  • Fruits mature in the months of November-December.
  • The average fruit yield is 80-100 kg per tree.
4) PAU Baramasi : 
  • The right time of fruit maturing is first week of July.
  • It contains very less amount of seeds.
  • It gives an average yield of 84kg per tree. 
5) PAU Baramasi-1: 
  • The right time of fruit maturing is last week of November month.
  • The fruit is seedless.
  • It gives an average yield of 80kg per tree. 
Other States Varieties

1) Rasraj :

  • Developed by IIHR. Yellow colored fruits content 70% juice and 12 seeds.
  • Its acidity is 6% and TSS content is about 8 brix.
  • It is resistant to bacterial blight and canker disease.

2) Lisbon lemon:

  • It is resistant to frost and high wind velocity.
  • Fruit are of medium size, having lemon yellow color with smooth surface.

3) Lucknow seedless: Fruits are of medium size with yellow color.

4) Pant Lemon:

  • Dwarf variety having medium size juicy fruits.
  • It is resistant to scab, canker and gummosis
Assam Lemon, Italian Lemon, Eureka lemon, Malta lemon.

Soil –

  • Lemons can be grown in all types of soils.
  • Light soils having good drainage are suitable for its cultivation.
  • PH range of soil should be 5.5-7.5.
  • They can also grow in slightly alkaline and acidic soils.
  • Light loam well drained soils are best for lemon cultivation.

Climate –

  • Areas with dry climate and low rainfall are best suited for growing limes.
  • Lemons can be grown in heavy rainfall humid regions.

Plants are propagated by budding or air layering.


Time of sowing
The best season for planting is July-August.

Seed Rate
Minimum plant density of 208/acre should be maintained.

  • Land should be ploughed, cross ploughed and leveled properly.
  • Planting is done on terraces against slopes in hilly areas.
  • High density planting is also possible in such areas.


  •  Spacing between plants should be kept between 4.5 m ×4.5 m.
  • Pits of size 60×60×60 cm should be dug for planting seedlings.
  • 10 Kg of Farmyard Manure and 500 gm of single superphosphate should be applied to pits while planting.

Sowing Depth
Pits of size 60×60×60cm should be dug for planting seedlings.

Fertilizer requirement

Age of crop (Year)Well decomposed cow dung  (kg/tree)Urea (gm/tree)
First to three year5-20100-300
Seven to Nine25-50400-500
Four to Six60-90600-800
Ten and above100800-1600

Nutrient requirement

  • When age of crop is 1-3 year, apply well decomposed cow dung@ 5-20kg per Tree and Urea @100-300 gm per Tree.
  • For 4-6 year old crop, apply well decomposed cowdung @ 25-50kg and Urea@100-300 gm per Tree.
  • For 7-9 year old crop, apply Urea @ 600-800 gm per tree and well decomposed cow dung @60-90 kg per Tree.
  • When crop is 10year old or above, apply cowdung@100kg or Urea@800-1600gm per tree.
  • Apply whole amount of cow dung during December month
  • whereas apply Urea in two parts; apply first of Urea in February, and second dose in April-May month.
  • At time of applying first dose of Urea, apply whole dose of SSP fertilizer.
  • If fruit drop is observed, to control excessive fruit drop, take spray of 2,4-D@10gm in 500Ltr of water.
  • Take first spray in March end, then in April end.
  • Repeat the spray in August and September end.
  • If cotton is planted in nearby field of citrus, avoid spraying of 2,4-D, instead take spray of GA3.
  • Weed can be controlled by hand-hoeing and also controlled by chemically, use glyphosate @1.6 litre per 150 litre of water.
  • Use glyphosate only on weeds not on crop plants.
  • Lemon requires irrigation at regular intervals.
  • Lifesaving irrigation should be given in winters and summers.
  • Irrigation is necessary for Flowering, Fruiting and proper plant growth.
  • Over irrigation may also leads to diseases like Root rot and collar rot.
  • High frequency irrigation is beneficial. Salty water is injurious for crop plants.
  • Partial drying out of soil in spring may not affect plants.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Dull green, yellowish, smaller leaves.
  • Die back of twigs, thin and bushy appearance of tops with sparse bloom. Vein chlorosis.
  • New leaves are greater than older.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray urea 2% at 15 days interval



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Slower growth, shedding of leaves at blossom tine.
  • New shoots poorly attached to twig.
  • Smaller leaves, twigs die peak, scorching of leaf tips, small brown resinous spots on leaf.
  • Small wrinkled spotted leaves. Small fruits, thin peel.
  • In mandarin – yellowing and bronzing of leaves become twisted, wrinkled and spindy twigs.
Correction Measure
  • Foliar spray of KNO3 2% at fortnightly interval.
  • Application of 200g N, 100g P2O5 and 200g K2O / tree/year



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Premature wilting, water soaked spots on leaves.
  • Premature shedding of leaves, bushing appearance curling of leaves, splitting and curling of veins.
  • Fruits with gum spots and lumpings, hand abnormal shape and small. 
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of borax@0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Reduced growth and dark green colour of leaves, twin led malformed leaves.
  • New leaves shriveled, bushy growth. 
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of CuSO4 each 0.5% at fortnightly interval.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Thin leaves with interveinal chlorosis in young leaves.
  • Greein tinge at the base of mid rib. Leaf size reduced.
  • Later the leaves become pale or whitish and shed.
  • Die back symptom older leaves remain green, fruits hand, coarse light coloured.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5% twice at fortnight interval.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Fine network of green veins as a light green background on young leaves.
  • Leaf remains fairly green.
  • Dark green irregular bands on mature leaves, along the midrib.
  • White spots develop in interveinal area with die back symptom.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of 0.5% MnSO4 at fortnightly interval



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Irregular and chlorite leaf spots, mottled leaf, small leaves, severe dieback of twigs.
  • The area near midrib and lateral veins remain green.
  • Terminal twigs with narrow small erect leaves. Small, thin skinned fruits.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray 2% ZnSO4 with 1% lime at fortnightly interval

1)Citrus Psylla :

Psylla on citrus | Makhro


  • These are juice sucking pests.
  • Damage is mainly caused by nymphs.
  • It injects a plant toxin liquid which burns foliage and skin of fruit.
  • Leaves curl and fall off prematurely.


  • It can be controlled by pruning of diseased plants, burning them.
  • Spraying of Monocrotophos-0.025% or carbaryl- 0.1% can also be helpful.

2) Leaf miner :

Citrus leafminer | Bugs For Bugs


  • Larvae inside the upper or lower surface of young and newly emerged leaves are curled and look distorted.
  • Young trees show a reduction in growth due to leaf miner.


  • Best management for leaf miner is to leave it alone and let the natural enemies to feed upon them and parasitize their larvae.
  • It can also be controlled by spraying Phosphomidon @1ml or Monocrotophos @1.5ml per 3-4 times fortnightly.
  • Pheromone traps are also available for detecting leaf miner moths.

3) Scale Insects :

Citrus Scale Pests: Information On Citrus Scale Control


  • Citrus scale insects are small insects that suck sap from the citrus trees and fruits.
  • Honeydew is produced which is feasted upon by ants.
  • They do not have much mouth parts.
  • Male citrus scale has a short life span.   
  • Once dead, soft scale will fall from tree instead of remaining stuck.
  • They can be controlled with the introduction of indigenous parasitic wasps.


  • Neem oil is also effective against them.
  • Spraying of Parathion (0.03%) emulsion, dimethoate 150ml or malathion @0.1% are effective against scale control.

4) Aphids & Mealy Bugs:

Aphids in citrus | Agriculture and Food    Citrus Mealybugs - The Daily Garden


  • They are small sap sucking pests.
  • Bugs are present on the underside of leaves.


Synthetic Pyrethroids or pest oil can be used to control aphids and bugs.

1.Citrus Canker:

citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri)


  • Plants have lesions on stems, leaves and fruits with brown, water-soaked margins.
  • Citrus canker bacteria can enter through plant’s stomata into the leaves.
  • Younger leaves are highly susceptible.
  • Lesions oozes bacterial cells which can be dispersed by blowing wind to healthy plants in area.
  • Contaminated equipment tends to spread disease to healthy plants.
  • Bacteria can stay viable in old lesions for several months.
  • It can be detected by appearance of lesions.


  • It can be controlled by cutting of effected branches, twigs.
  • Spraying of Bordeaux mixture @1%. Aqueous solution of 550 ppm, Streptomycin Sulphate is also helpful in controlling citrus canker.

2) Gummosis :

What Is Citrus Gummosis? - Rudy's Termite & Pest Control


  • Exudation of gum from bark of tree is the characteristic symptom of gummosis disease.
  • Affected plant leaves turns to pale yellow in color.
  • Hardness masses of gum are common on stem and leaf surfaces.
  • In severe cases, bark may be destroyed by rotting and tree may dies.
  • Plant dies before the fruit matures. This disease is also called foot rot.


  • This disease can be managed through proper selection of site with proper drainage, use of resistant varieties etc.
  • Plant injuries should be avoided.
  • Drench the soil with 0.2% metalaxyl MZ-72 + 0.5% trichodermaviride, which helps to control this disease.
  • Bordeaux mixture should be applied to plant upto 50-75 cm height from ground level at least once in a year.

3) Powdery mildew :

Citrus powdery mildew | Business Queensland


  • White cottony powdery growth is noticed on all aerial plant parts.
  • Leaves tend to become pale yellow and crinkle.
  • Distorted margins are also seen.
  • Upper surface of leaves are more affected.
  • Young fruits drop off prematurely. Yield is reduced significantly. 


  • To control powdery mildew, affected plant parts should be removed and destroyed completely.
  • Carbendazim, three times at 20-22 days of interval helps to control this disease.

4) Black Spot :

Citrus black spot: pest data sheet | Agriculture and Food


  • Black spot is a fungal disease.
  • Circular, dark spots on fruits are seen.


  • Copper spray in early spring should be sprayed on foliage helps to cure plants from black spots.
  • It should be repeated in 6 weeks again.

5) Lemon Scab :


  • It affects some of the mandarin varieties and lemon fruits.
  • Raised grey corky scabs on tree branches, fruits and leaves are seen causing distortions of the fruit.
  • Fruits fall of at very early stages of growth.
  • It is caused due to fungus.


  • Copper spray mixed with white oil should be sprayed on the foliage to prevent lemon scab.
  • Two table spoons of white oil to two liter of water should be added into 5 litre or copper spray mixture.

6) Collar Rot :

Collar Rot - Fruit Salad Trees


  • Collar rot is also caused due to fungus.
  • This disease mainly affects the bark on tree trunk.
  • Bark begins to rot and forms a band just above ground surface, this band decay gradually and covers the whole trunk.
  • It is very severe in some cases that even the trees may die.
  • This is caused due to incorrect mulching, injury due to weeding, mowing etc.
  • Tree may lose its vigor.
  • To protect trees from collar rot, cut and scrape away the soft, infected bark to clean the trunk of tree.


  • Mixture of copper spray or Bordeaux mixture should be painted on the affected part of the tree.
  • Remove all the weak, diseased and congested tree branches to ensure proper air circulation.
  • On attaining proper size, shape along with attractive color having TSS to Acid ratio of 12:1, kinnow fruits is ready for harvest.
  • Depending upon variety fruits are generally ready for harvesting in Mid- January to Mid- February.
  • Do harvesting at proper time as too early or too late harvesting will give poor quality.
  • After harvesting, wash fruits with clean water then dip fruits in Chlorinated water@2.5ml per Liter water and then partially dried them.
  • To improve appearance along with to maintain good quality, do Citrashine wax coating along with foam.
  • Then these fruits are dried under shade and then packing is done. Fruits are packed in boxes.
50 kg/tree