Botanical Name - Eriobotrya japonica
Family -Rosaceae

In India mainly it is known as Lukat or Lugath. It is an evergreen and subtropical fruit tree. It attains the height of 5-6m and is spreading in nature. The fruit is native to central-eastern China and is mainly grown in Taiwan, Korea, China and Japan countries. In India loquat farming is done in Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Assam and Uttar Pradesh states. It also has health benefits such as it helps to improve skin health and eye vision, helps in weight loss, maintains blood pressure and increases blood. It also helps in strengthening of teeth and bones. In Punjab it is mainly grown in Roop Nagar, Hoshiarpur, Gurdaspur and Patiala districts. The fruit mainly ripens in end-march to April and fetches good price.

1)California Advance: Released in 1970. Medium sized fruits, cream color flesh, sour in taste, 2-3 large seeds, ripens in fourth week of April. 

2)Golden Yellow: Released in 1967. Medium sized fruits, yellow color flesh, 4-5 medium sized seeds, variety mature in third week of March.

3)Pale Yellow: Released in 1967.  Large sized fruits, white flesh, sour in taste, 3-4 large seeds, ripens in second week of April.

Other state varieties:

Early varieties: Pale Yellow, Golden Yellow, Improved Golden Yellow, Thames Pride and Large Round.

Mid-season varieties: Mammoth, Improved Pale Yellow, Safeda, Fire Ball, Matchless and Large Agra.

Late season varieties: California Advance and Tanaka.

Soil –

Loquat requires sandy loam soil which is rich in organic matter and has a good drainage system.

Climate –

The ideal conditions for loquat production are: annual temperature average of above 15°C, a frost-free period of more than 210 days, temperate and rainy winters, summer temperatures lower than 35°C especially in April–June, 60% relative humidity

Air-layering method is used for propagation. Budded or grafted plants are preferred for planting as they are early fruit bearers.

Seed rate:
Use 95-96 plants per acre.

Seed treatment:

Treatment of smooth and old-ringed shoots is done with NAA@3% and IBA 250ppm is done.

Time of sowing:
June-September month is an optimum time for sowing.

For loquat farming, the well prepared land is required. To bring the soil to a fine tilth, leveling is required followed by 2-3 deep ploughing.

Use plant to plant spacing of 6-7m.

Sowing depth:
1m deep planting is done.

Method of sowing:
Propagation method is used.

Nutrient Requirement (gm/acre)

Age (in years)FYM (kg/tree)UREASSPMOP
1-2 years10-20150-500200-500150-400
3-6 years25-40600-750600-1200600-1000
7-10 years40-50800-10001500-20001100-1500
10 and above years50100020001500


Apply Farm Yard manure, Phosphorus and Potassium in September month and urea dose is added in two equal splits, the first dose is added in October month and rest of the half dose is added in January-February month after fruit set.

Weed can be controlled by hand-hoeing and also controlled by chemically, use glyphosate@1.6litre per 150 litre of water. Use glyphosate only on weeds not on crop plants.

Irrigation is given depending upon soil and weather conditions. Mainly 3-4 irrigations are required at the time of harvesting.

1) Leaf roller caterpillar: The leaf roller will affect the crop by rolling the leaves. 

Treatment: To control leaf roller caterpillar spray with quinalphos@400ml in 150 ltr water per acre.

2)Aphids: Adult and nymphs, both suck the sap thus weaken the plant. In severe infestation, they cause curling and deformation of young leaves. They secrete honey dew like substance and Sooty, black mould is developed on affected parts.

Treatment: To control aphids spray with Dimethoate@300ml in 150 ltr water per acre.

1)Black spot: It is a disease caused by fungus. The symptoms are black color sunken spots seen on leaves.

Treatment: If infection of disease is observed spray with Carbendazim@4gm/Ltr or Copper Oxychloride@3gm/Ltr or Mancozeb@3gm/Ltr of water.

Trained on modified leader system of training.

Mainly plant starts bearing fruits in the third year of the plantation and maximum yield starts from 15th year. Harvesting is done when fruits get fully matured with the help of a sharp instrument. After harvesting, grading is done. It gives an average yield of 6-8qtl/acre.

40 kg/tree