Botanical Name -Cucumis melo L.
Family - Cucurbitaceae

  • It is important vegetable crop of India.
  • These are mother fruits of several better-known cultivars.
  • Muskmelon is native to Iran, Anatolia and Armenia.
  • Musk melon is rich source of Vitamin A and Vitamin C.
  • It contains about 90% of water and 9% Carbohydrates.
  • In India muskmelon growing state includes Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.

1)Hara Madhu: Late maturing variety. Fruits are of large size, round shape having average weight of about one kg. Skin is of light yellow color. TSS contain is about 13% and very sweet in test. Flesh is of green color, thick and juicy. Seeds are of small size. It is resistant to powdery mildew. It gives average yield of 50qtl/acre.

2)Punjab Sunehri: Mature 12days before Hara Madhu. Fruits are of round shape with netted rind and of light brown color. Its average weight is about 700-800gm, TSS is about 11%. Flesh is thick, orange color. It has good keeping quality. It is resistant to fruitfully attacked. Its average yield is about 65qtl/acre.

3)Punjab Hybrid: It is early maturing variety. Fruit is of round shape, light yellow color with netted skin. Flesh is thick, orange color, juicy and excellent flavor. TSS is upto 12% and average weight about 800gm. It is resistant to fruit fly and gives average yield of 65qtl/acre.

4)MH-51: Released in 2017. It gives an average yield of 89qtl/acre. It has round fruits, having stripes and are gauzed. It contains 12% sucrose content. 
5)MH-27: Released in 2015. It gives an average yield of 88qtl/acre. It contains 12.5% sucrose content. 


Other state varieties:

Arka Jeet

Arka rajhans

MH 10

Pusa madhurima

Soil –

  • It is grown in variety of soil conditions ranging from loamy to clayey, deep fertile to flat soil having good drainage system and good water holding capacity.
  • For good plant growth, it requires pH ranging from 6.2-6.8.  

Climate –

  • Muskmelon is essentially a warm season crop grown mainly in tropical and sub-tropical regions.
  • Generally a long period of warm, preferably dry weather with abundant sunshine is required.
  • Melons require fairly high temperature of 35-40C during the fruit development.

Time of sowing
Middle of February is optimum time for muskmelon cultivation.

Seed Rate
For sowing in one acre land, seed rate of 400gm seeds are required.

Seed Treatment

  • Before sowing treat seed with Carbendazim@2gm/kg of seeds.
  • After chemical treatment, treat the seeds with Trichoderma viride@4gm per kg of seeds.
  • Dry seeds in shade and then do sowing immediately.
  • Nursery for muskmelon can be prepared either with polythene bags of 200 gauge,10 diameter and 15 cm height or through protrays under protected nursery.
  • Use protrays,each having 98 cells for raising seedlings.
  • Transplant about 12 days old seedlings in the main field.
  • Plough land and bring to fine tilth. In North India, sowing is done in middle of February month.
  • In North east and west India sowing is done during November to January.


  • Prepare 3-4m wide beds depending upon variety use.
  • Sow two seeds per hill on bed and keep distance of 60 cm between hill.

Sowing Depth
Plant seed about 1.5cm deep.

Method of sowing
For Sowing dibbling method and transplanting methods can be used.


  • Sow seeds in polythene bag of 15 cm x 12 cm size with thickness of 100 gauge in last week of January or first week of February.
  • Fill polythene bag with equal proportion of well rotten cow dung and soil.
  • Seedlings are ready for transplantation by end of February or first week of March. Transplantation is done for 25-30 days old seedling.
  • Apply irrigation immediately after transplantation. 

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)


Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

  • Apply Farm Yard Manure or well decomposed cowdung @10-15 tonnes per acre.
  • Apply Nitrogen@ 50 kg, Phosphorus @ 25 kg and Potash@25 kg in form of Urea@110kg, Single Super Phosphate@155 kg and Muriate of Potash@40kg per acre.
  • Apply whole amount of Phosphorus, Potash and one third amount of Nitrogen before sowing seed.
  • Apply remaining dose of Nitrogen near vines base, avoid touching it and mixed well in soil during initial growth period.
  • When crop is of 10-15 days old, for good growth of crop along with good quality, take spray of 19:19:19+Micro-nutrients@ 2-3 gm/Ltr of water.
  • Prevent flower drop and increase yield up to 10% take spray of Humic acid@3 ml + MAP(12:61:00)@5 gm/Ltr of water at flowering stage.
  • Spray Salicylic Acid (4-5 tabs of Aspirin Tablet 350mg)/15Ltr water at initial flowering, fruiting and maturity stage, One or two times with 30 days interval.
  • After 55 days of sowing spray 13:0:45@100 gm + Hexaconazole @25ml/15Ltr water for fast development of fruits and protection against powdery mildew.
  • 65 days after sowing to increase in fruit size, sweetness and colour take spray with 0:0:50 @1.5kg/acre using 100 gm/15Ltr of water.
  • Keep bed weed free during early stage of growth.
  • In absence of proper control measures, weed can cause yield loss of 30%.
  • 15-20 days after sowing carry out intercultural operations.
  • Depending upon severity and intensity of weeds, two to three weeding are required.
  • Apply irrigation, every week in summer season.
  • At time of maturity give irrigation only when needed.
  • Avoid over flooding in muskmelon field.
  • During application of irrigation, do not wet the vines or vegetative parts, especially during flowering and fruit-set.
  • Avoid frequent irrigation in heavy soil as it will promote excessive vegetative growth.
  • For better sweetness and flavor, stop irrigation or reduce watering 3-6 days before harvesting.  
  • Install drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at
    an interval of 1.5m.
  • Place the drippers in lateral tubes are at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm
    spacing with 4 LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively

1) Aphid and Thrips:


  • They suck the sap from the leaves resulting in yellowing and drooping of leaves.
  • Thrips results in curling of leaves, leaves become cup shaped or curved upward.


  • If infestation is observed in field, to control spray the crop with Thiamethoxam@5gm/15Ltr of water.
  • If infestation of sucking pest and powdery/downy mildew is observed, take spray of Thiamethoxam and 15days after spraying, spray with Dimethoate@10ml+Tridemorph@10ml/10Ltr of water.

2)Leaf Miner: 


  • Maggots of leaf miner feed on leaf and make serpentine mines into leaf.
  • It affects the photosynthesis and fruit formation.


If infestation of leaf miner is observed, take spray of Abamectin@6ml/15Ltr of water.

3)Fruit fly: 


  • It is a serious pest.
  • Females lay eggs below epidermis of young fruits.
  • Later on maggots feed on pulp afterward fruits starts rotting.


  • Remove and destroyed infected fruits away from field.
  • If infestation is observed, at initial stage take spray of Neem seed kernal extracts@50gm/Ltr of water.
  • Take spray of Malathion@20ml + Jaggery@100gm in 10litre of water 3-4times at 10days interval.

1) Powdery Mildew:


  • Patchy, white powdery growth appears on upper surface of leaves and also on main stem of infected plant.
  • It parasitizes the plant using it as a food source.
  • In severe infestation it causes defoliation and premature fruit ripening.


If infestation is observed take spray of water soluble Sulphur@20gm/10Ltr of water 2-3 times with interval of 10days.

2) Sudden wilt: 


  • It can affect crop at any stage.
  • Plant get weak and give yellow appearance at initial stage, in severe infestation complete wilting is observed.


  • Avoid waterlogging in field.
  • Destroy infected parts away from field.
  • Apply Trichoderma Viride@1kg/acre mixed with 50kg FYM or well decomposed cowdung.
  • If infestation is observed, take spray of Mancozeb or Copper Oxychloride@2.5gm/liter or Carbendazim or Thiophanate-methyl@1gm/liter of water.

3) Anthracnose:


Anthracnose affected foliage appears scorched appearance.


  • As a preventive measure, treat seed with Carbendazim@2gm/kg of seed.
  • If infestation is observed in field, take spray of Mancozeb@2gm or Carbendazim@0.5gm/litre of water.

4) Downy Mildew: 


  • It occurs frequently in muskmelon and less in case of watermelon.
  • Yellowing occurs on upper side of leaves.
  • Later yellowing get increases and center of leaves turning brown.
  • Underside of leaves white-gray light blue fungus appears.
  • Cloudy, rainy and humid conditions are favorable for spread of this disease.


If infestation is observed in field, take spray of Metalaxyl 8%+Mancozeb 64% WP (Ridomil)@2gm/Ltr of water.

  • Harvesting of Haramadhu should be done when fruits turn to yellow.
  • Harvest other variety depending upon market distance.
  • For long distance markets harvest fruits at mature green stage where as for local markets harvest at half-slip stage.
  • A slight depression of the stem end indicates half-slip stage.
  • After harvesting do precooling to reduce field heat.
  • Grading is done on basis of size of fruit.
  • Muskmelons harvested at partial slip can be held for up to 15 days at 2° to 5°C at 95% relative humidity whereas Muskmelons harvested at full slip can be held for 5 to 14 days at 0° to 2.2°C at 95% relative humidity.

20 t/ha in 120 days.