Onion / Big Onion - Kharif Season
Botanical Name - Allium cepa var cepa
Family - Alliace

Onion is most widely cultivated popular vegetable species. It is used for culinary purpose also it has several non-culinary use like it is used as Moth repellent because of its pungent juice, it is used to polish glass and copperware, onion concentrated water can be spray on plants to increased plants pest resistance. India ranks first in term of area and second in production after China.

Agrifound Dark Red: It is ready for harvesting in 95-110 days. Gives average yield of 120 qtl/acre.

Other states variety

N 53: 
Ready for harvesting in 100-110 days. Bulbs are large in size with scarlet red color. Gives average yield of 60-80 qtl/acre.

Bhima Shakti

Bhima Shakti

Bhima Dark red


It can cultivate on various soil type such as sandy loam, clay loam silt loam and heavy soils. It gives best result when grown in deep loam and alluvial soils with good drainage, moisture holding capacity and sufficient organic matter. Loose and sandy soils are not suitable for cultivation as bulb produce in such soil are deformed with less keeping quality. pH of soil should be 6 to 7.

Climate –

Onion is a temperate crop but can be grown under a wide range of climatic conditions such as temperate, tropical and subtropical climate. The best performance can be obtained in a mild weather without the extremes of cold and heat and excessive rainfall.

Time of sowing
Optimum time for raising nursery is middle of June month. Seedlings are ready for transplantation 6-8 weeks after sowing. Complete transplantation in first week of August.

Seed Rate
Use seed rate of 3-4 kg/acre.

Seed Treatment
Seed treatment with Thiram@2 gm/kg of seed + Benomyl 50WP@1 gm/liter water effectively controls damping off and smut diseases. After chemical treatment, seed treatment with bio agent Trichoderma viride@2 gm/kg of seed is recommended, it help in reducing early seedling diseases and soil borne inoculum.

 The seedlings of big / common bellary onion are produced in raised nursery beds. Nursery area of 12.5 cents with slanting slope of 2% is required for the seedling production to cover 1 ha.
 For open / protected nursery, raised beds may be used, since the seeds are too small and the number of seedlings required is very high.
 Raised beds of 30 cm height and convenient length at an interval of 30cm between beds must be formed for sowing the seeds.
 The beds are inoculated with Arbuscular mycorrhizae @ 1 kg / sq. m.

Give three to four deep ploughing and bring soil to fine tilth. Add well decomposed cow dung to increase organic content of soil. Then leveled soil and divide into small plots and channels.


While transplanting, use spacing of 15 cm between rows and 7.5 cm between plants.
Sowing Depth
In nursery, sow seeds at depth of 1-2 cm.

Method of sowing

For sowing use transplanting method.

Depending upon climatic conditions and soil type decide irrigation amount and frequency. Apply first irrigation immediately after sowing then depending upon need apply irrigation with interval of 10-15days.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)



Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)



Apply 20 tonnes of Farm Yard Manure or well decomposed cow dung 10 days before sowing. Apply Nitrogen@40 kg, Phophorus@20 kg and Potash@20 in form of Urea@90 kg, Single Super Phosphate@125 kg per acre and MOP@35 kg/acre. Apply whole quantity of Phosphorus, Potash and half dose of Nitrogen at time of transplanting. Apply remaining amount of nitrogen as top dressing, four weeks after transplantation.

WSF: 10-15 days after transplanting, sprayed 19:19:19 along with micronutrient@2.5 to 3 gm/Ltr of water.


Initially onion seedlings grow slowly. So better to use chemical herbicides than hand weeding to avoid injury. To control weeds take spray of Pendimethalin(Stomp)@1 Ltr/200 Ltr water/acre within 72 hours of sowing. Apply oxyfluorfen@425 ml/200Ltr of water per acre as post emergence herbicide 7 days after planting. Two to three weeding are recommended for weed control. First hand weeding should be done one month after sowing and second hand weeding to be done one month after first hand weeding.

1)Maggots: Infestation observed in January-February Month. They feed on roots because browning of leaves. Base of plant become watery.

If infestation is observed, apply Carbaryl@4kg or Phorate@4kg to the soil and give light irrigation. Or Apply Chlorpyriphos @1.5Ltr/acre along with irrigation water or sand.

2)Thrips: If not controlled properly can cause yield loss up to 50%. Mostly observed in dry weather. They suck sap from the foliage and results in curling of leaves, leaves become cup shaped or curved upward.

To check severity of thrips incidence, keep blue sticky traps @6-8 per acre. If infestation observed in field take spray of Fipronil (Reagent)@30ml/15Ltr water or Profenofos@10ml /10Ltr water by 8-10days interval.

1)Purple blotch and stem phylium blight: In severe infestation may cause yield loss up to 70%. Deep purple lesions are observed on leaves. Yellow streaks get turn brown and extend along the blade.

Take spray of Propineb70%WP@350gm/acre/150Ltr of water, twice at 10days interval.

Application of Carbofuran 3 G at 10 days after transplanting.

Harvesting at proper time is necessary. It depend upon variety, season, market price etc. 50% neck falls is sign indicating crop is ready for harvesting. Harvesting is done manually by uprooting bulbs. After harvesting they are kept in field for 2-3 days to remove excessive moisture from bulb.

After harvesting and proper drying, bulbs are sorted and graded according to size.

15 – 18 t/ha in 140 – 150 days.

Apply 1000g Endo roots soluble in two splits doses at 15 DAT and 45 DAT along with100% N and K and 50% P for higher yield and saving of phosphorous

Apply mycorrhiza roots 1000g in two splits at transplanting and 30 DAT along with 100% N and K and 50% P for higher yield and saving of phosphorus.