Botanical Name - Carica Papaya L.
Family - Caricaceae

  • It is a tropical fruit which is native to Mexico. It belongs to “Caricaceae” family and “Carica” genus.
  • It is a fast growth plant which has long fruiting period and contains high nutritional value.
  • India is known as the largest producer of papaya.
  • It can be grown in pots, greenhouse, polyhouse and containers.
  • It also has health benefits such as it helps to relieve constipation, cancer, helps in lowering cholesterol, and helps in fighting with cancer cells.
  • It is a rich source of Vitamin A and C.
  • In India, Maharashtra, Karnataka, west Bengal, Orissa, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, U.K, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are major states doing papaya farming.

1)Red Lady:

  • Released in 2013.
  • Plants show vigorous growth and are self-fruitful.
  • It attains the height of 238cm and the plants start bearing fruit when it attains the height of 86cm.
  • Fruits are medium in size, oblong to oval in shape and has reddish orange color flesh having excellent flavor and taste.
  • The plant matures after 10 months and gives an average yield of 50kg.
  • The variety is resistant to pests and diseases.

2) Punjab Sweet: 

  • Released in 1993.
  • Dioecious variety which attains the height of 190 cm and the plants start bearing fruit when it attains the height of 100 cm.
  • Fruits are large in size, oblong in shape and has deep yellowish color flesh.
  • It contains 9.0-10.5% T.S.S. content and gives an average yield of 50kg/plant. The plant is less susceptible to citrus mites.

3) Pusa Delicious: 

  • Released in 1992.
  • Hermaphrodite variety which attains the height of 210 cm and the plants start bearing fruit when it attains the height of 110cm.
  • Fruits are medium to large in size, oblong to oval in shape and has deep orange color flesh having excellent flavor and taste.
  • It contains 8-10% T.S.S. content and gives an average yield of 46kg / plant.

4) Pusa Dwarf: 

  • Released in 1992.
  • Dioecious and dwarf variety which attains the height of 165 cm and the plants start bearing fruit when it attains the height of 100 cm.
  • Fruits are medium in size, oval in shape and has orange color flesh.
  • It contains 8-10% T.S.S. content and gives an average yield of 35kg / plant.

    5) Honey Dew
  • Released in 1975. It is also known as Madhu Bindu.
  • The plant is of medium height.
  • Fruits are large in size, elongated in shape and contain few seeds.
  • Fruits have extra fine flesh which is sweet and contains pleasant flavor.

Other state varieties:

1)Washington: less seeds, big size fruits, yellow color flesh, sweet in taste, male plants are smaller than female plants, plant is comparatively smaller in size.

2) Coorg Honey: Very less seeds, big size fruit, less sweet than honey dew variety and plants are having high height, male and female flowers bear on same tree.

3) CO.2:  Large size fruits and plant has medium height.

CO.1, CO.3, Solo, Pusa Nanha, Ranchi Selection, Coorg Green Sunrise Solo, Taiwan and Coorg Green 
are suitable varieties grown in different states.


Soil –

  • Sandy loam soil, well fertile & well drained is best Adequate drainage & aeration are two important factors for successful cultivation.
  • 45 cm deep soil is adequate. Can not stand water logging.
  • If drainage is not adequate, collar – rot disease may occur


  • It is a tropical fruit and grows well. Summer temperature ranges from 35o C – 38o C.
  • Tolerates frost and comes up to an elevation of 1200 m
  •  Night temperature below 12°-14°C for  several hours during winter season  affects its growth and production  severely.
  • It is very much sensitive to frost, strong winds and water  stagnation .Can not tolerate very hot or frost.
  • Dry, warm climate increase  sweetness. 

Seeds are sown in second week of July to third week of September and transplanting is done from first week of September to mid-October.

Seed rate:
Use 150-200gm seeds for per acre land.

Seed treatment:
Before seed sowing, treat the seeds with Captan@3gm to protect the plant from soil borne diseases.

  • The seedlings are prepared in the polythene bags having dimensions of 25 X 10 cm. In these polythene’s, 8-10 holes are done having 1 mm diameter on lower part for proper drainage of water.
  • Polythene bags are filled with equal proportions of FYM, soil and sand.
  • Mainly seeds are sown in polythene bags in 2nd week of July to 3rd week for September.
  • Before sowing treat the seeds with Captan@3gm per kg seeds.
  • Drenching is done with Captan@0.2% when seedlings emerge out to protect them from damping off disease.
  • Transplanting of seedlings is done in September-October month.
  • For papaya farming, well prepared land is required.
  • To bring the soil to fine tilth leveling is required.
  • At the time of last ploughing, apply FYM (Farm Yard Manure).

Use plant to plant spacing of 1.5 X 1.5m.
Sowing depth:
1 cm deep seeds are sown.

Method of sowing:
Propagation method is used. 

  • Irrigate copiously after planting.
  • Irrigate the field once in a week.
  •  Sensitive to water logging.
  • Double  basin system is best to prevent collar-rot.
  • Winter 10-12 & summer 6-8 days  interval.
  • Apply FYM 10 kg / plant as basal. Apply 50 g in each of N, P and K per plant at bimonthly intervals from the third month of planting after removing unwanted sex forms.
  • Apply Arbuscular mycorrhizae (50 g/plant), phosphate solubilising bacteria (25 g/plant), Azospirillum (50 g/plant) and Trichoderma harzianum (50 g/plant) at the time of planting.
  • Apply 20 g in each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria again six months after planting.

Spray 0.5% Zinc sulphate and 0.1% Boric acid at 4th and 8th MAP to improve growth
and yield.

1.White fly: Bemisia tabaci 

Invasive Whitefly Species Spreading Through Florida, Could Threaten ...

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from undersurface of the leaves
  • Yellowing of leaves.
  • Management
  • Field sanitation
  • Removal of host plants
  • Installation of yellow sticky traps
  • Spray application of imidacloprid 200 SL at 0.01% or triazophos 40 EC at 0.06% during heavy infestation.
  • Spray neem oil 3 % or NSKE 5%
  • Release of predators viz., Coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
  • Release of parasitoids viz., Encarsia haitierrsis and E.guadeloupae

2.Fruit fly: Bactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis

Fruit fly on a papaya fruit. | Papaya fruits, Fruit, Papaya

Symptoms of damage

  • Maggots puncture into semi-ripe fruits with decayed spots
  • Oozing of fluid and brownish rotten patches on fruits.
  • Dropping of fruits.


  • Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit and covering with soil.
  • Provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa
  • Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps.
  • Heavy application of dust and sprays of pyrethrum or BHC
  • Spray fenthion 100 EC 2 ml/ lit or malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit.
  • Field release of natural enemies Opius compensates and Spalangia philippines


  • Prepare bait with methyl eugenol 1% solution mixed with malathion 0.1%.
  • Take 10 ml of this mixture per trap and keep them in 25 different places in one hectare between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m.
  • 250 ml capacity wide mouthed bottle fitted with hanging device at its neck.
  • Change the solution at fortnightly interval from March to July.

3.Ash weevils: Myllocerus spp

Stereonychus fraxini - Ash Weevil, Slimy Ash Weevil, Olive Leaf Weevil ...

Symptoms of damage

  • Grub feed on the roots
  • Wilting of young saplings
  • notching of leaf margin by adults


  • Collect and destroy the adults
  • Spray carbaryl 50 WP at 2g/lit

4.Green peach aphid: Myzus persicae

green peach aphid - Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves, petioles and fruits
  • Leaf curling and falling
  • Premature fruit drop


  • Remove and destroy damaged plant parts
  • Spray dimethoate 0.03% or methyl demeton 0.025%
  • Field release of parasitoid Aphelinus mali and predators ,Coccinella septumpunctata


Nutritional Deficiencies of Papaya — Vikaspedia

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Nitrogen deficiency causes slow growth and paler leaves with reduced leaf area and rate of leaf production. 
  • Leaf petioles short, thin and compressed.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of urea@2%


Untitled Document []

Deficiency Symptoms
  • The deficiency of P causes complete cessation of elongation ,older leaves becoming increasingly irregularly necrotic, leaf production is reduced, and marginal chlorosis and premature death are caused. 
  • P deficiency causes a blue or dark green coloration of leaves.
Corrective Measure

Soil application of phosphotic fertilizer as per the recommendation


Papaya (Carica papaya): Potassium deficiency - a photo on Flickriver

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Deficiency of potassium causes marked reduction in growth, interval profusely smaller, premature yellowing of plant. 
  • Purplish brown patches appear at the base of the petioles. 
  • Fruits are badly shaped, poorly filled and unsuitable for marketing.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of KCl@2%


Papaya (pawpaw) | Leaves turning yellow

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Magnesium deficiency symptoms show green banding around the margin and next to the midrib. 
  • Leaves turn yellowish with brown goods on the leaf margin. 
  • Plant height reduced marginal yellowing of leaf margin extends towards the midrib. 
  • Purplish mottling of leaf petiole and malformation of leaves. 
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MgSO4@1-2%


Is this Sulphur deficiency in papaya | Community | Plantix

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Deficiency causes chlorosis and delaying of green colour in newly emerging leaves,reduced plant growth and reduced leaf size. 
  • The leaf blades become very soft and tear easily.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MgSO4@1%

6 Boron

Boron nutrient deficiency in plants - OMEX

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Distortion of newer leaves. 
  • Ad the growing point dies. 
  • Leaves show chlorotic symptom. 
  • Bushy appearance of shoot. 
  • Leaves show inward cupping with stunted growth.
Correction Measure

Soil application of borax 2-3 g/plant


TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Marginal chlorosis of young leaves, which later turn brown. 
  • Fruits with raised spots which are dark brown on black in colour. 
  • Leaves give striated appearance from the edges.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MnSO4@1-2%

1.Stem rot / Foot rot:  Pythium  aphanidermatum


  • Water soaked spot in the stem at the ground level which enlarge and griddle the stem.
  • The diseased area turns brown or black and rot.
  • Terminal leaves turn yellow droop off.
  • The entire plant topples over and dies.
  • Forward by rain. R. solaniis favoured by dry and hit weather.Common in 2-3 year old trees.


  • Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan 4 g/kg or Chlorothalonil.
  • Drenching with Copper oxychloride 0.25 % or Bordeaux mixture 1% or Metalaxyl 0.1%
2.Powdery mildew: Oidium caricae

Papaya (Carica papaya): Powdery mildew - a photo on Flickriver


  • While mycelia growth appear on the upper surface of the leaf, flower stalks and fruit.Seven attak causes yellowing and defiation of leaves.


  • Spray Wettable Sulphur 0.25% or Dinocap 0.05% or Chinomethionate 0.1%or Tridemorph 0.1%.
3.Papaya ring spot: Papaya ring spot virus


  • Vein clearing, puckering and chlorophyll leaf tissues lobbing in.
  • Margin and distal parts of leaves roll downward and inwards, mosaic mottling, dark green blisters, leaf distortion which result in shoe string system and stunting of plants.
  • On fruits circular concentric rings are produced.If affected earlier no fruit formation.
  • Vectored by aphids Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora and also spreads to cucurbits not through seeds.


  • Raise papaya seedlings under insect-proof conditions.
  • Plant disease free seedlings.
  • Raise sorghum / maize as barrier crop before planting papaya.
  • Rogue out affected plants immediately on noticing symptoms.
  • Donot raise cucurbits around the field.
4.Leaf curl:  Papaya leaf curl virus

Leaf Curl Of Papaya | 03 Perfect Methods to Get Rid of


  • Curling, crinkling and distortion of leaves, reduction of leaf lamina, rolling of leaf margins inward and downward, thickening of veins.
  • Leaves become leathery, brittle and distorted.Plants stunted.Affected plants does not produce flowers and fruits.
  • Spread by whitefly Bemisia tabaci


  • Uproot affected plants.
  • Avoid growing tomato, tobacco near papaya.
  • Spraying with systemic insecticides to control the vector
5.Anthracnose: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

Treating Papayas With Anthracnose - How To Control Anthracnose On ...


  • If affect leaf and stem on erotic spots are produced.On fruit initially brown superficial discoloration of the skin develops which are circular and slightly sunken.
  • Then they coalesce in which sparse mycelial growth appear on the margins of a spot.
  • Under humid condition salmon pink spores are released.Fruits mummified and deformed.

Infected fruit

  • Infection is caused by fruit from field.  Secondary spread by conidia by rain splashes

24 – 30 months.

  • Harvesting is mainly done when fruit attains the full size and is light green in color with a tinge of yellow at apical end.
  • First picking can be done after 14-15 months of planting. 4-5 harvestings can be done per season.

The average yield is as follows
CO 2 : 200 – 250 t / ha
CO 3 : 100 – 120 t / ha
CO 5 : 200 – 250 t / ha
CO 6 : 120 – 160 t / ha
CO 7: 200 – 225 t / ha
CO 8: 220 – 230 t / ha

Papaya sap fetches profit; farming expanded to 250 acres in Kerala, Papaya  sap, papaya latex, papaya farming, papaya profit, papaya cultivation in  Kerala

  • Papain has several industrial uses, the important one being in brewing industries.
  • It is used as ―meat tenderiser ‖ and in textile and leather ―sanforization ‖ processes and drugs.
  • The method of extraction of papain from papaya fruits is simple.
  • The latex should be tapped from immature papaya fruits.
  • Select 75 to 90 days old fruits. On the selected fruit, give incisions (cut) with a razor blade or stainless steel knife.
  • The cuts should be given from stalk to tip of the fruit.
  • The depth of the cut should not be more than 0.3 cm. Four such cuts are given spaced equally on the fruit surface.
  • Tap the latex early in the morning and complete the tapping before 10.00 A.M.
  • Repeat the tapping four times on the same fruit at an interval of three days.
  • The cut should be given on the fruit surface in places not covered by previous cuts.
  • The latex collected from all the plants in a day should be pooled, shade dried in an aluminium pan or tray and passed through a 50 mesh sieve to remove all foreign matter.
  • In large plantations, vacuum driers can be adopted with advantage. Papain produced by artificial heating will have better colour and high quality. Add Potassium meta-bi-sulphite (KMS) at 0.5 % for better colour and keeping quality.
  • The latex should be dried very rapidly at temperatures of 50 to 55oC.
  • Stop drying when the dried product comes off as flakes having a porous texture.
  • Powder the dried papain by means of wooden mallets or in electrically operated granulators and sieve the powder through 10 mesh sieve.
  • Pack the powder in polythene bags in convenient quantities and seal them. Put the sealed bags in a tin container and seal it after evacuating air.
  • Exposure to air deteriorates the quality of papain and vacuum sealing is therefore necessary.
  • For large scale manufacture of papain, vacuum sealing machine and a granulator will be useful.
  • The green papaya fruits after extraction of papain can be used for pectin manufacture and ―tuity fruity ‖ or they can be allowed to ripen and made into other products.
  • The CO 2, CO 5 and CO 8 varieties of papaya released by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore are ideal for papain production. 

The yield of crude papain is as follows: CO 2: 600 kg / ha, CO 5 & CO 8: 800 kg / haAccordion Content

Germination improvement

  • Store the seeds in airtight containers.
  • Soak the seeds in 100 ppm GA3 for 16 hours or in 2% fresh leaf extract of arappu or 1% pungam leaf extract or pellet the seeds with arappu leaf powder.

Optimum depth of sowing
Sow seeds at 1 cm depth for better germination and seedling growth.

BSS 6 wire mesh sieve.
Dry seeds to 8-10% moisture and treat with halogen mixture containing CaOCl2, CaCO3 and arappu leaf powder (at 5:4:1 ratio) @ 3 g / kg and pack in cloth bag to maintain viability upto 5 months.

Invigoration of old seeds
Stored seeds can be invigorated by soaking them in dilute solution of disodium
phosphate (10-4 M) adopting 1:8 seed to solution ratio for 4 hours, followed by drying back to original moisture content