Botanical Name -Manilkhara achras
Family - Sapotaceae

  • It is native to Mexico and other native countries of South America.
  • It is commonly known as Chiku and it is mainly cultivated in India.
  • It is mainly used for the production of latex which is used for the preparation of chewing gums.
  • In India, it is mainly grown in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.
  • Sapota is cultivated in 65 thousand acre of land and gives an annual production of 5.4lakhs metric tonnes.
  • Its fruit is berry which contains 3-5 black shining seeds.

1) Kalipatti:

  • Released in 2011.
  • High yielding and good quality variety, egg shaped fruits and contains less seeds i.e. 1-4 seeds per fruit.
  • It gives an average yield of 166kg / tree.

2) Cricket Ball: 

  • Developed in 2011.
  • It is famously known as Calcutta Large, large round fruit, grainy flesh, and not much sweet.
  • It gives an average yield of 157 kg /tree.

Other state varieties:

1) Chhatri

  • Low quality as compared with kaali patti variety, high yielding variety.

2) Dhola Diwani 

  • Good quality yield having egg shaped fruits.

3) Baramasi

  • In northern India, it is popular variety, round and medium shape fruit, 12 months yield giving variety.

4) Pot Sapota

  •  Fruiting starts in the pot, small fruit which is egg shaped and having a sharp top, fruit is very sweet and aromatic. 

    Calcutta Round, Pala, Vavi Valsa, Pilipatti, Murabba, Baharu, and Gandhevi
     are also the varieties grown in other states.

Soil –

  • It is grown in variety of soil but deep alluvial, sandy loam soil and black soil having good drainage are ideal for doing sapota farming.
  • pH having 6.0-8.0 is optimum for sapota farming.
  • Avoid cultivation in shallow clayey soil and in high calcium content.

Climate – 

  • Sapota, being a tropical crop can be grown from sea level upto 1200 m. above m.s.l.
  • It needs warm (10-380 C) and humid climate (70% relative humidity) for growth and can be cultivated throughout the year.
  • Coastal climate is best suited for its cultivation.

Time of sowing:

  • Planting is mainly done in February to March and August to October month.
  • The ideal season of planting is June to December
  • Grafted on Manilkhara hexandra (Pala) rootstock.
  • Sapota can be propagated by approach grafting. Grafting can be done on Manilkhara hexandra  (Pala) rootstock.


  • For sapota farming, well prepared land is required.
  • To bring the soil to fine tilth, ploughing is done 2-3 times followed by leveling. 


  • 8 x 8 m (156 plants/ha) for conventional planting.
  • Adopt high density planting at 8 x 4 m (312 plants / ha) for high productivity 
  • Planting
  • Dig pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m size and fill up with top soil mixed with 10 Kg of FYM, 1 Kg of neem cake .
  • Plant the grafts at the centre of the pit with ball of earth intact.
  • The graft joint must be atleast 15 cm above the ground level. 
  • After planting stake the plants properly to avoid bending or damage to graft joint during heavy winds.
  • Legumes and short duration vegetable crops may be raised as intercrop during pre-bearing stage.
  • Raising of intercrop serve as additional income and enriches the soil fertility by fixing the atmospheric nitrogen.
  • Depending upon climate and irrigation facilities, intercropping with pineapple and cocoa, tomato, brinjal, cauliflower, peas, cucurbits, banana, papaya can be done.



Pre emergence application of Stomp@800ml/acre or Diuron@800gm/acre is done for initial 10-12 months for the effective weed control.

Age of tree (in years)FYM (kg/tree)UREA (gm/tree)SSP (gm/tree)MOP (gm/tree)
1-3 years25220-660300-90075-250
4-6 years50880-13001240-1860340-500
7-9 years751550-20002200-2800600-770
10 years and above10022003100850
  • In December to January month, application of FYM, phosphorus and potassium is done.
  • Application of nitrogen is done in two equal splits, first half dose is applied in March month and the remaining half dose of nitrogen is applied in July to August month.
  • Manures and fertilizers may be applied in September-October at 45 cm away from the trunk upto the leaf drip and incorporated.
  • In winters irrigation is done at the interval of 30 days and in summers irrigation is given at the interval of 12 days.
  • Drip irrigation is done as it will reduce upto 40% water.
  • In initial stage i.e. during first two years, 2 drippers are laid at the spacing of 50cm from the tree and then till 5 years, 4 drippers are laid at the spacing of 1m from the tree.

1.Bud worm: Anarsia epotias 

Symptoms of damage

  • Webbed flowers and buds
  • Shedding of buds and flowers.
  • Bore holes and excreta seen on attacked flowers.
  • Spray phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit.
  • Application of neem oil 2% or neem seed kernel extract 5 %.

2.Fruit fly: Bactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis 

Sapote Fruit Fly Lures, Sapote Fruit Fly Bait, Sapote Fruit Fly Control

Symptoms of damage
  • Maggot bore into semi-ripen fruits with decayed spots and dropping of fruits.
  • Oozing of fluid
  • Brownish rotten patches on fruits.


  • Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit and covering with soil.
  • Provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa
  • Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps.
  • Use bait spray combing any one of the insecticides and molasses or jaggery 10 g/l
    • malathion 50EC 2 ml/l,
    • dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l,
    • carbaryl 50 WP 4 g/l. two rounds at 2 weeks interval before ripening of fruits.

3.Stem borer: 

Sapota Stem Borer Plocaederus Ferrugineusverletzte Auf Sapota Zweig in ...

Symptoms of damage

  • Presence of small holes at the collar region
  • Gummosis
  • Extrusion of frass through the bore holes at the collar region
  • Yellowing and shedding of leaves
  • Drying up of twigs and gradual death of the tree.


  • Collect and destroy the damaged plants
  • Field sanitation
  • Swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l on the basal portion of the trunk ( 3 feet height)
  • One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole
  • Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud.

4.Leaf webber : Nephopteyrx eugraphella 

Symptoms of damage
  • Caterpillar webs and feed on  leaves
  • Scrapping chlorophyll content  
  • Leaves dried and hanging from the webbed shoots
  • Caterpillar bores into flower buds and tender fruits – withered and shed.
  • Remove and destruct the infested fruits from the orchard
  • Collect and remove the dried clusters of leaf web
  • Insecticides: Spray phosalone 35 EC 2 ml/lit or phosphamidon 40 SL 2 ml/lit or neem seed kernel extract
    5 %.

5.Hairy caterpillar: Metanastria hytaca 

Symptoms of damage
  • Caterpillars feed on leaves
  • Defoliation
  • Field sanitation
  • Free from weeds and debris
  • Collect and destroy the egg mass
  • Burning the groups of larvae found on tree trunks with torches.
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20EC or phosalone 2 ml/l
  • Dusting carbaryl 10 D on the trunk and branches (around the tree 4 feet)
  • Field release of chalcidid wasp, Brachymeria sp.

6.Striped mealy bug : Ferrisia virgata

striped mealybug (Ferrisia virgata)

Symptoms of damage

  • Presence of white mealy mass on the terminal shoots and under surface of the leaves
  • Yellowing of older leaves


  • Collect and destroy egg masses and caterpillars
  • Use burning torch to kill the congregating larvae
  • Use light trap to attract and kill the adults
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC@ 0.05%or dimethoate 30 EC @ 0.06%
  • Field release of Cryptoleamus montrouzieri 20 per tree

7.Green Scale: Coccus viridis

Coccus viridis (soft green scale) | PlantwisePlus Knowledge Bank

Symptoms of damage
  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves
  • Yellowing of leaves


  • Prune and destroy the infested shoots at initial stage of infestation.
  • After two weeks release 20 predator beetles viz., C. montrouzieri beetle per tree.
  • Encourage parasitoids viz., Aneristis sp Coccophgagus cowperi, C. bogoriensis

1) Leaf spot :

Forum: Problems With White Sapotes *Pics Included*


  • Deep purplish brown color spots which are white from the center and are round in shape are seen.
  • The disease is characterized by numerous, small, pinkish to reddish brown spots with whitish centers in the leaf.
  • Long spots are seen on the stem of fruits and petals.
  • Spraying of copper oxychloride@400 gm per acre is done.
  • Spray Mancozeb @ 0.25% or Copper oxychloride 0.2% to control the disease

2) Heart rot :

What Is Heart Rot Disease In Trees? - Tampa Tree

Symptoms –

  • It is a fungal disease that causes the decay of wood at the center of the trunk and branches.
    Treatment : 
  • Spraying of Carbendazim@400gm or Z-78@400gm in 150 ltr of water per acre is done.

3) Anthracnose : 

Sapota | Sapota Tree Planting Information


  • On stem and branches, deep sunken wounds of canker are seen and on leaves, brown color stains are seen.

Treatment : 

  • Spraying of copper oxychloride or M-45@400gm per 150ltr water is done to get rid of anthracnose.

4.Sooty mould : Capnodium sp.

Controlling Sooty Mold | EDEN'S GARDEN


  • It is a fungal disease developed on honeydew-like excretion secreted by aphids and scale insects.
  • The fungus slowly covers the entire leaf area severely affecting the process of photosynthesis.
  • This results in reduced translocation of food to the fruits, which leads to reduction in their size.


  • Spray starch solution 5% to remove the fungal growth.
  • Control insects by spraying systemic insecticides.
Post Harvest Diseases

1. Soft Rot: Pestalotiopsis mangiferae

Internal rot symptoms of sapote mamey caused by Pestalotia spp. and ...


  • The disease appears as water-soaked spots covering the entire fruit within 3 to 4 days.
  • Rotted fruits become soft and dark brown and later numerous acervuli are seen in rotted zones.

2. Fruit Rots

Can anyone suggest remedy for disease in Sapota (chiku) fruit ...

  • Phytophthora palmivora, Pestalotiopsis versicolor, P. glandicola, P. sapotae and Botrydiplodia theobromae are the causal agents of fruit rots in sapota.
  • Diseased fruits exhibited water-soaked lesions which become brown within 2 to 3 days.
  • Subsequently the whole fruit is covered with tufts of mycelium.
  • Spray Mancozeb 0.25%.


New UF EDIS Fact Sheets for Horticulture Crops | Panhandle Agriculture

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Stunted growth.
  • The bark of the shoots turned reddish-brown in colour. 
  • On elongating shoots the immature leaves were amber to bright red in colour while the mature leaves remained small and yellow-green in colour. 
  • Early abscission of leaves, smaller and fewer fruits.
Correction Measure

Foliar sprays of urea 2% were more effective treatment with 250 g N per tree from both sources increases the fruit weight and yield.


Horticulture :: Mineral Nutrition- Fruits-Sapota

Deficiency Symptoms

Pigmentation seen in older leaves; leaf size become small

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of DAP 2% at fortnightly intervals.


Horticulture :: Mineral Nutrition- Fruits-Sapota

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Light brown specks scattered all over the leaves which appeared later merged forming necrotic patches between the large veins. 
  • Browning on the under side of the leaves and chlorotic areas between veins due to K deficiency.
Correction Measure
  • Application of KCl at 80 kg per hectare.
  • Application of K2SO4 instead of potassium chloride to the sapota plants.


Horticulture :: Deficiencies and Disorders-Sapota-Calcium

Deficiency Symptoms

Tip of the twig and flower bud affected;

Correction Measure

  • Foliar spray of CaSO4@1%


Horticulture :: Deficiencies and Disorders-Sapota-Magnesium

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Leaves become lighter green which gradually turned greenish yellow, remaining deeper green along the mid rib and larger veins. 
  • Leaves turned yellow with scattered brown lesion on the leaf blade. 
  • Interveinial chlorosis on older leaves followed by necrosis of distal leaf edge.

Correction Measure

  • Application of dolomite or spraying magnesium nitrate 1% can avoid the deficiency.


Horticulture :: Deficiencies and Disorders-Sapota-Sulphur

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Yellowing of young leaves; growth of the leaf eill be affected
Correction Measure
  • Foliar spray of CaSO4@1%


Horticulture :: Deficiencies and Disorders-Sapota-Boron

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Leaves were yellowish-green in colour the older leaves showed signs of burning at the tips and along the margins which abscissed prematurely. 
  • The tip burning of young leaves and splits or crack on the midrib and large veins on the underside of the leaf.
Correction Measure

Soil application of borax at 5 kg/ha.


TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection

Deficiency Symptoms
  • The leaf veins developed a reddish-brown colour, premature defoliation and die back of twigs also occurred. 
  • The tip of the twigs developed multiple buds which died soon.
Correction Measure
  • Application CuSO4 5 to 10 Kg/ha. 
  • Cu-fungicide sprays will be helpful in correcting the deficiency

9. Iron


Deficiency Symptoms

yellowing of young leaves; occurence of interveinal chlorosis

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4@0.5 % at fortnightly intervals


Untitled Document []

Deficiency Symptoms
  • Light colored spots on the leaves and sometimes necrotic spots also appear.
  • Green bands of varying width appear along the midrib and veins with yellow areas between the veins.
  • Interveinal chlorosis, premature dropping of the leaves and dye back of terminals due to Mn deficiency were also recorded.
Correction Measure

Spraying of MnSO4-0.3% at fortnightly intervals..


Horticulture :: Deficiencies and Disorders

Deficiency Symptoms

Symptoms seen in young leaves; size of the leaf become small

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of ZnSO4@0.5%

  • Harvesting is done in July-September month.
  • But keep in mind not to harvest unripe fruits.
  • Mainly harvesting is done when fruits are having to fade orange or potato color and fruits having a less sticky milky color product and it is gets easily plucked from the tree.
  • Mainly 5-10 years old tree gives 250-1000 fruits.
  • After harvesting, grading is done and then storage is done at 20 C temperature for a period of 7-8 days.
  • Storage life can be increased for 21-25 days by removing ethylene and adding CO2 @5-10% in the storage atmosphere.
  • After storage packing is done in cardboard boxes and is used for long distance transportation.
  • February – June and September – October.
  • Ripen the fruits in air tight room by keeping a beaker containing 5000 ppm Ethrel + 10 g NaOH pellets in an air tight chamber (5 ml Ethrel in one lit of water is 5000 ppm).
  • Alternatively, fruits can be exposed to ethylene gas at 100 – 200 ppm for 18 – 20 hrs to induce ripening.

20-25 t / ha / year.

Growing Districts: Dindigul, Coimbatore, Virudhunagar, Theni, Namakkal

Major Markets in Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Coimbatore, Anna Fruit Market, Koyambedu,

Preferred Varieties and hybrids: Cricket Ball, PKM 1, Kalipatti, PKM 4

Grade Specification: Based on size and shape, large, medium and small