Botanical Name - Punica ganatum L.
Family - Punicaceae

  • Pomegranate known as Anar in Hindi is commercial crop of India.
  • Its origin lies in Persia.
  • It is a rich source of carbohydrates, proteins, calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin C.
  • Pomegranate eaten as fresh fruit also its juice is cool and refreshing.
  • Along with juice, each and every part of pomegranate has some medicinal value.
  • Its root and peel used to cure diarrhoea, dysentery and worm killing in the intestines.
  • Its petals are used for preparing dyes.
  • Maharashtra is major producer of Pomegranate. Other states like Rajasthan, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana are also cultivating pomegranate on small scale.

Hard seeded types : 

  • Kandhari : Fruits are large with deep red rind, aril deep blood red  slightly  acidic juice.   
  • Musker Red : Medium sized fruits with medium thick red rinds. 
  • Alandi or Vadki : It possesses medium sized red fruits, aril fleshy, blood red or deep pink with 
  • Kabul : Large fruits, dark red with yellow patches, 

    2.Soft seeded types  

  • Dholka: fruits with greenish white rind, whitish . It is the commercial variety of Gujarat.  
  • Paper Shell: Medium sized fruits with thick rind  
  • Spanish Ruby : It has medium sized fruits with thin rind , flesh rose coloured and seeds are soft
  • Ganesh :Originally it was identified in Ganesh khind garden, Pune by raising OP seedlings of  Alandi and designated as GBG-1. 
  • Jothi : (GKVK-1)  Agricultural Sciences GKVK, Campus, Bangalore,   
  • Yercaud-1 (YCD-1)  :  Horticultural Research Station, Yercaud, Tamil Nadu 
  • CO-1:  developed at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore with  purple aril and soft seeds. 
  • Mridula :  Developed at MPKV, Rahuri through seedlings selection from an open pollinated F2 population raised after crosses make between Ganesh x Gul-e-Shah Red. 
  • Ruby:  A multiple cross hybrid developed at IIHR, Bangalore for aril colour and seed  mellowness. 
  • Amlidana :  It is an F1 hybrid (Ganesh x Nana) grows well under tropical climate. 
  •  Bhagwa: Bigger fruit size, sweet, saffron coloured thick skin. Less susceptible to fruit spots and thrips as compared to other varieties and matures in mid-October. It gives an average yield of 14.kg per tree.

    Other Varieties –

    Jyothi,  Arakta, Rudhra, Solapur Lal and Solapur Anardana

  • Bacterial blight tolerant varieties: Nayana, Kalpitiya, 

Soil – 

  • It can be grown on variety of soils.
  • For optimum growth and yield, it required deep loamy and alluvial soils.
  • It is tolerant to loamy and slightly alkaline soils.
  • It is also cultivated on poor soils. Also medium and black soils are suitable for pomegranate cultivation.

Climate –

  • Pomegranate grows well under semi-arid conditions and can be grown upto an altitude of 500 m. above m.s.l..
  • It thrives well under hot, dry summer and cold winter provided irrigation facilities are available. The tree requires hot and dry climate during fruit development and ripening.
  • For proper fruit  development and maturity and sweetness, a temperature of 35 – 38 0 C is needed. Under humid condition the quality gets affected. At higher elevation and areas of low temperature during  winter the tree behaves as a deciduous one.
  • Pomegranate is commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings.
  • Semi-hardwood  cuttings of one year old are used for rooting.
  • The rooting is improved by application IBA 5000  ppm through the quick dip method. (10 to 20 seconds).
  • Hardwood cutting of 15 cm length and 6 mm thickness.
  • Pre-treat with Carbendazim (0.1%) + Bactronol (2 –Bromo, 2- Nitropropane, 1-3 diol) @ 0.05% for 10 minutes, followed by one washing with tap water and dipping the lower half of the cuttings for 5 minutes in 2000ppm IBA.
  • Maintain 85% relative humidity.

It can also be propagated by air layering or gootee, as well as ground layering. Transplanting of rooted cuttings is done during monsoon  season

  • Pits of 60 cm x 6o cm x 60 cm size are dug at a spacing of 4 to 5 M between rows and 2  M within the rows, So that higher yield can be obtained during the first 5 years.
  • After 5 years, alternate plant within the row can be removed so as to maintain 4 x 4 M or 5x 4 M. Before  planting, each pit should be filled up with 20 kg of FYM and top soil.
  • Inoculation of 50 g of  phosphobacterium+ 150 g of Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza in the roots at the time of planting  will help better root growth and establishment.  

Pomegranate propagation-

  • Air layering is carried out in the month of May/June.
  • In this method a 1-2 year old, healthy, vigorous, mature shoot of 45-60 cm in length and pencil thickness is selected.
  • A circular strip of bark about 3 cm wide just below a bud is completely removed from the selected shoot
  • Rooting hormones like IBA & NAA 50mg each in Lanoline paste are applied over this portion.
  • Moist sphagnum moss is packed around this portion and tied with polyethylene sheet to prevent the loss of moisture.
  • Application of such hormones promotes early rooting.
  • Light brown roots are visible through the polythene wrap in the month of July-August
  • The rooted shoot is slowly detached by giving 2-3 successive cuts over a period of week before finally detaching from the parent plant.
  • The polythene sheet is removed before planting them in pots.
  • They are planted in pots and kept in nurseries under shade.
  • Top of the shoot is cut back to maintain a proper ratio of leaves: roots.
  • The grafts can be transplanted in the field in the month of September/October
Time of sowing
Mainly sowing is done in December to January month. 
  • Plough the land for two – three times and bring soil to fine tilth.
  • After then carry out planking operation to make land leveled and uniform.
  • Optimum spacing is depending on soil type and climate.
  • For Pomegranate planting, if square system of planting is adopted, use spacing of 4m x 4m.
Sowing Depth
  • For sowing, dug Pits of 60 x 60 x 60 cm size about a month prior to planting. Keep pits open under the sun for a fortnight.
  • Then filled pits with top soil mixed with 20kg of farmyard manure and 1 kg of super phosphate.
  • After filling pit, apply water. It settle down the soil. 
Method of sowing
  • Transplanting method is used. 
  • Pomegranate is propagated through air layering method. 
  • Air layering is done in rainy season as well as in November-December month.
  • For air layering, select one to two year old, healthy, mature shoot having length of 45-60cm with pencil thickness.
  • Apply 5-6 kg Farm yard manure to one year old plant in December. Put Urea@50gm per plant every year in two equal splits.
  • First dose is given in March month and second dose is given in April month.
  • After 5 years start adding urea @ 250gm per plant.
  • The following nutrient schedule is recommended for pomegranate (g/plant).


After I year 




II Year 




III Year 




IV year and above 




  • Besides this every year 20 kg of FYM should be applied / tree.
  • The manures and  fertilizers are mixed and applied in a round basin 1 metre away from the trunk.
  • A week before  application of fertilizer, the soil around the root zone is slightly removes and 50 g of  phosphobacteria = 150 g of Vesicular Arbuscular mycorrhiza have to be applied near the  feeder roots.
  • Besides farmyard manure each tree is supplied with 10 kg of pressmud, by  spreading on the top layer of soil. In sandy soils, press mud serves as a mulch and prevents  moisture loss during the summer season.
  • Besides this, press mud also supplies some of the nutrients. 
  • Press mud applied plants have come to earlier bearing in sandy soil condition. 
  • Application of 375 kg N, 1875 kg P2O5 and 187.5 kg K2O through fertigation along with  irrigation level at 20% wetted area is found best for pomegranate var. Mridula.
  • Drip irrigation using a pitcher pot or tube will keep the soil moisture constant without  much fluctuation.
  • This helps the pomegranate to get better establishment in the early stage as  well as regular bearing in the fruiting phase. 
  • In summer apply water at the interval of 10-15 days and in winter increase irrigation interval upto 20-25 days.
  • To control weeds, mulching can be done.
  • Along with weed control, it helps to conserved moisture and reduces evaporation loss.

24 – 30 months.

NAA 10 mg/l as foliar spray during September when new flush initiation occurs

Training and Pruning help in growth of fresh healthy shoots. It removes old also disease branches and avoids overcrowding of branches. It also maintains proper shape of plant.

  • Pomegranate is trained as a bush.
  • Pomegranate tree has a tendency to throw out a lot of  suckers. If it is trained on a single stem system and if it is damaged by stem borer then the tree  will be lost.
  • Therefore, 3-4 stems are allowed per plant and they are pinched at a height of 1 metre and below the pinched tip of each stem upto 25-30 cm, 2-3 branches well distributed in all  direction are encouraged.
  • Such a training will help for good maintenance of the tree.

In pomegranate the fruits are borne terminally on short spurs produced all along the slow  growing mature wood.

Pruning method in pomegranate - YouTube

  • They bear fruit for 3-4 years. Every year during winter a light pruning is  to be given to shorten the previous season growth so as to encourage fruiting.
  • Besides this, dead  and diseased branches, water sprouts (suckers) should be removed periodically.
  • Water sprouts  from the base should be nipped at the start of their growth so as to avoid wastage of food material in such growth which exhaust the maximum reserve food.
  • If such diversion of food is allowed  then there will be very poor bearing in the trees. 
  •  Thinning of flower clusters ensures better size of the fruit.
  • Spraying liquid paraffin at 1%concentration at 15days interval twice during June reduces fruit cracking.

Pomegranate flowers continuously when watered regularly.

The plants under such conditions may continue bearing flowers and bear small crop irregularly at different period of 37 the year, which may not be desirable commercially.

To avoid this trees are given bahar treatment.

  • In this treatment, the irrigation is withheld two months prior to the bahar followed by light earthing up in the basin. This facilitates the shedding of leaves.
  • The trees are then medium pruned 40-45 days after withholding irrigation.
  • The recommended doses of fertilizers are applied immediately after pruning and irrigation is resumed.
  • This leads to profuse flowering and fruiting. The fruits are ready for harvest 4-5 months after flowering.
    In tropical condition, there are three flowering seasons,
  1. January-February (Ambe bahar)
  2. June -July (Mrig bahar)
  3. September-October (Hasta bahar).

The choice of flowering or fruiting is controlled by the availability of irrigation water, market demand, and the prevalence of pests and diseases in a particular area.


  • To obtain an appropriate crop at the desired season.
  • Control fruit production for consistency and quality.
  • To increase both productivity and the grower’s profit.
  • To lower cultivation costs because continuous uninterrupted blossom would result in light crops all year long and expensive monitoring and marketing expenses.

Mrig Bahar

  • In Deccan regions, when water is so limited in the summer, Mrig Bahar is practised
  • Withholding watering for this treatment from December to April may result in significant growth inhibition. As the plants enter their dormant state in the months of march through April, leaves are shed.
  • Before the rainy season begins, manures and fertilizers are sprayed, and light irrigation is followed by two significant irrigations spaced seven days apart.
  • Trees will grow rapidly within 15 days, producing fruits and flowers and new growth. Fruits start to ripen in October and keep doing so until December.

Ambe Bahar

  • Ambe Bahar is practised in regions where water is available during hot weather. After the start of the wet season, no irrigation is provided, and the fruits are available in June and July.
  • Manures are sprinkled in December and January. The first irrigation is provided in January, and within a month after this irrigation, flowers start to bloom.
  • Ambe bahar has been discovered to be a more effective treatment than mrig bahar in the dry regions of western Maharashtra.

Hasta bahar

  • Hasta Bahar is rarely practised. August through September must be used to make the trees dormant.
  • This treatment is used from September to October, immediately following the end of the rainy season.
  • The earlier rainy season causes the plant to accumulate more nitrogen and the soil to retain some moisture, preventing the plant from experiencing the water stress needed to promote flowering.
  • Well-draining soils may be regarded as favourable for this treatment.
  • This treatment is popular because it guarantees a high market price for the fruits.
  • The fruits of hasta bahar have very appealing rind (skin) and dark-coloured arils, and they are picked from March through April.
  • Fruits are expensive because there is a restricted supply during this season.
  • Due to the timing of the irrigation restrictions and the rainy season, optimal water stress cannot be created during this time.
  • Poor flowering results from this, which lowers the crop’s yield
  • Water is withheld for two months before regular flowering, the roots are exposed, and pesticides are used.
  • This process is referred to as Bahar Treatment
  • Irrigation is withheld two months prior to the bahar.
  • In case of light sandy and shallow soils, withhold water for 4–5 weeks.
  • Such results in water stress, leaves show wilting and fall on the ground
  • Application of ethrel spray at 2 to 2.5 ml/l mixed with 5 g/l of DAP
  • The trees medium pruned 40-45 days after withholding irrigation
  • Cover the roots with a mixture of soil and FYM and give light irrigation



Deficiency Symptoms-

  • Fruits are small, harder, abnormal and crack.  
  • Scattered yellow spots on the leaf surface and the leaf tip show burn symptom. 
  •  Leaves thick and brittle.

Corrective Measures-

  • Soil application of borax 20 g/tree

1)Anar Butterfly : Deudorix (Virachola) isocrates

Wildbytes from India: Birds Love the Anaar Tree!


  • It lay eggs on fruit rind/skin.
  • After hatching they feed on pulp.
  • Affected fruits get rot and then drop.


  • Keep cleanliness in field.
  • At time of flowering and fruit development, take spray of Carbaryl 50WP@2-4gm or Quinalphos 25EC@2ml/Ltr of water.

2) Mealy Bug: Ferrisia virgata

Symptoms of damage-

  • Premature dropping of fruit.
  • Its nymphs, start crawling on trees and feed on young flowers. Also secrete honeydew like substance and black mould is developed on it. 


  • Keep orchard clean
  • Fastened, 25cm width Polythene(400gauge) strip around tree trunk to stop ascent of nymphs before hatching of eggs in month of Nov and Dec.
  • If infestation is observed, take spray of Thiamethoxam 25WG@0.25gm/Ltr or Imidaclopird 17 SL@0.35ml/Ltr or Dimethoate 30 EC@2ml/Ltr of water.

3)Aphid: Aphis punicae

Aphis punicae (Pomegranate aphid) identification, images, ecology, control

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves, shoots and fruits
  • Yellowing of leaves
  • Wilting of terminal shoots.


Spray of Thiamethoxam 25WG@0.20gm/Ltr or Imidacloprid @0.35ml/Ltr of water.

4) Fruit borer: Conogethes punctiferalis 

Pomegranate fruit borer - YouTube

Symptoms of damage-

  • Caterpillar bores into young fruits
  • Feeds on internal contents (pulp and seeds)
  • Dry up and fall off in without ripening


  • Use light trap @ 1/ ha to monitor the activity of adults
  • Malathion 50 EC 0.1% or Dimethoate 30 EC 0.06%, two rounds, one at flower formation and next at fruit set.

5.Whitefly:Siphoninus phillyreae

Xtremehorticulture of the Desert: Summer Pruning of Eggplant and Tomato ...

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves
  • Honey dew – development of sooty mould fungus
  • Yellowing of leaves.
  • Dropping of affected leaves.


  • Field sanitation
  • Removal of host plants
  • Release of parasitoids viz., Encarsia haitierrsis and E.guadeloupae

1. Black spot / fruit rot : (collectotrichum gloeosporoides)

PP349/PP349: Diseases of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) in Florida

Symptoms : 

  • The disease starts as minute dull-violet black spots on leaves. 
  • The area surrounding the  spot turns yellow, then spots enlarge and cause drying.

Management : 

  • Spraying fruits with 0.25% mancozeb or copper oxy chloride 0.25% or carbendazim  0.1% starting from one month after flowering and repeated at monthly interval (3 sprays). 

2. Bacterial leaf spot : (Xanthomonas campestris pv. punicae)

Figure 1 from Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae causing ...

Symptoms :

  • The bacteria also attack  fruits and cause dark brown irregular spots. 
  • Night temperatures of 50 to 60°F accompanied by light rain, fog or heavy dew and followed by days of 60 to 75°F with high relative humidity are ideal for infection.

Management : 

  • Spraying 250 ppm streptomycin sulphate or 400 ppm streptocycline.

3.Cercospora Fruit Spot: Cercospora sp.

Cercospora fungus (Cercospora punicae)


  • Optimum conditions are 77° to 95° F with night temperatures above 61° F, and a relative humidity of 90-95%.
  • The affected fruits showed small irregular black spots, which later on coalesced into big spots.


  • The diseased fruits should be collected and destroyed.
  • Two to three spray at 15 days interval with Mancozeb 0.25%.

4.Alternaria fruit spot: Alternaria alternata

Alternaria spot on pomegranate.: Alternaria alternata; : PlantwisePlus ...

  • Alternaria fruit rot infections commonly begin in the orchard following rain during flowering and early fruit development
  • The most favourable conditions for Alternaria is rain or heavy dew occurring when temperatures are between 25-28°C.


  • All the affected fruits should be collected and destroyed.
  • Spraying Mancozeb 0.25 % effectively controls the disease.


Pomegranate wilt: Complete wilting of plant


If infestation is observed, do drenching of Carbendazim@5gm/5Ltr to infected plant also other plants surrounding diseases plants.

Nematodes in pomegranate plant: Gujarat - BlogRoot-knot Nematode

  • The propagating materials such as ground layers, grafts, rootstocks used for grafting, clones and rooted cuttings infested with root knot nematode, M.incognita in pomegranate act as sources for dissemination of these nematodes into main field.
  • Use of air layers and sterilized soil media or adopting soil less media (vermiculite and coir pith) can keep the nematodes from entering the root system at nursery stage.

20-25 t /ha/year

The fruits can be stored up to 6 months at 0 to 4.5°C and 80% RH.

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