Botanical Name - Raphanus sativus L.
Family - Brassicaceae

  • Radish, edible root vegetable belongs to family of “Cruciferae” and its origin is in Mediterranean.
  • It is crop of tropical and temperate region.
  • It is a quick growing annual or biannual herb.
  • Its edible roots are having different color from white to red. West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and Assam are major radish growing states. Radish is good source of vitamin B6, Calcium, copper, magnesium and riboflavin.
  • Also it is rich in ascorbic acid, folic acid and potassium.

1) Japanese white:

  • Optimum time for sowing is from November-December.
  • It is introduced in India from Japan.
  • In northern plains it is recommended for late sowing and in hilly areas recommended for cultivation in July-September.
  • Roots are cylindrical and having pure white color.
  • Gives average yield of 160 qtl /acre.  

2) Pusa chetki :

  • Optimum time for sowing is from April-August.
  • Early maturing variety suitable for seed production for Punjab region.
  • Its roots are smooth, snow white color and medium long.
  • It gives average yield of 105 qtl /acre and seed yield of 4.5 qtl /acre.

3) Pusa Himani :

  • Suitable for sowing in fortnight of January-February.
  • Its root are white with green shoulders.
  • Ready to harvest in 60-65 days after sowing.
  • Gives average yield of 160 qtl /acre.

4) Punjab Pasand :

  • Optimum time for sowing is from second fortnight of March.
  • It is early maturing variety, ready to harvest in 45 days after sowing.
  • Roots are long, white and free from hair.
  • Suitable for sowing in main season as well as for off season.
  • In main season, gives average yield of 215 qtl /acre where as in off season gives average yield of 140 qtl /acre.

5)Punjab Safed Mooli-2: The variety matures in 60days and gives an average yield of 236qtl/acre. 

Other state varieties:

1) Pusa Deshi:

  • Suitable for sowing in northern plains.
  • Roots are of pure white color.
  • Ready to harvest in 50-55 days after sowing.

2) Pusa Reshmi: 

  • Variety is suitable for early sowing.
  • Ready to harvest in 50 to 60 days.  

3) Arka Nishant:

  • Long and pink root variety.
  • Ready to harvest in 50-55 days.

4) Rapid Red White Tipped :

  • Very early maturing European table type variety.
  • Ready to harvest in 25-30 days.
  • Roots are small and bright red colored with pure white flesh color.

Soil –

  • It can be grown on all type of soils but give best result when grown on light friable, sandy loam soil.
  • Avoid heavy or compact soils as it produce rough, malformed roots.
  • Ideal pH of soil for good growth is 5.5 to 6.8.


  • Radish is a quick growing cool season root vegetable.
  • The seed will germinate in 3 to 4 days with soil temperatures of 18 to 30 C with good moisture.
  • Minimum temperature for germination is 5 C, the optimum temperature for germination is 30 C.
  • The maximum temperature for germination is 35 C.

1)Pusa Himani: Optimum time for sowing is January-February.
2)Punjab Pasand: Optimum time for sowing is from second fortnight of March where as for Pusa chetki optimum time for sowing is from April-August.
3)Japanese white: Optimum time for sowing is from November-December.

  • Plough land thoroughly and make land weed and clods free.
  • Add well decomposed cow dung of 5-10ton/acre and mix well in soils at time of land preparation.
  • Avoid use of undecomposed or free cowdung as it will leads to forking of fleshy roots.

Use row to row spacing of 45 cm and plant to plant spacing of 7.5cm.

Sowing Depth
For good growth, sow seeds at depth of 1.5cm

Method of Sowing
Sowing can be done by Line Sowing and Broadcasting method.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)


Nutrients Requirement (kg/acre)


Along with well decomposed cowdung, apply Nitrogen@25kg (in form of Urea@ 55 kg), Phosphorus@ 12 kg (in form of SSP @ 75 kg / acre) per acre in soil at time of sowing.

  • Take interculture operation like weeding and hoeing to keep check on weed growth also to provide soil aeration.
  • Take one weeding operation, two to three weeks after sowing.
  • After weeding, carryout earthing operation.
  • After sowing, apply first irrigation, it will help in good germination.
  • Depending upon soil type and climate, apply remaining irrigations at interval of 6-7days in summer and 10-12 days interval in winter month.
  • Overall radish required five to six irrigations.
  • Avoid excessive irrigation as it will leads misshape of roots and numerous hair growth. In summer season, provide pre-harvest light irrigation.
  • It will keep root fresh and reduce pungency.
  • Install the drip system with main and sub-main pipes and place the inline lateral tubes at an interval of 1.5.
  • Place the dripper in lateral tubes at an interval of 60 cm and 50 cm spacing with 4LPH and 3.5 LPH capacities respectively.
  • Form the raised beds at 120 cm width at an interval of 30cm and place the laterals at the centre of each bed.


  • Fertigation requirement :50:100:50 kg of NPK / ha.
  • Apply once in three days
    Spacing : 30 x 15 x 10 cm in paired row system.
  • A total of 10 rows is accommodated in one bed.

Fertigation requirement :50:100:50kg of NPK / ha.

Apply once in three days
Spacing : 30 x 15 x 10 cm in paired row system.

A total of 10 rows is accommodated in one bed.

Fertigation schedule
Recommended Dose : 50:100:50 kg/ha         100% of TRD: 50: 25: 50 NPK kg/ha

StageCrop stageDuration in daysFertilizer gradeTotal fertilizer (kg/ha)Nutrient supplied% requirement
1Vegetative stage1519:19:19 + MN
Urea (46% N)
40 5.5
7.5 0.7
7.5 –
7.5 2.5
Subtotal 107.510   
2Early root development stage2019:19:19 + MN
Urea (46% N)
66 28
12.5 3.6
12.5 –
12.5 12.5
Subtotal 2512.525   
3Root maturity stage1019:19:19 + MN
Urea (46% N)
26 22
5.0 2.9
5.0 –
5.0 10.0
Subtotal 15515   
 Total duration45  50255010025100

75% RD of Phosphorous applied as super phosphate = 500kg /ha.
1. 19:19:19 = 125 kg / ha
2. 13:0:45 = 50 kg / ha
3. Urea = 50 kg / ha

1) Aphid :

Aphid Attack!!!! | Oh! Shoot!! grey aphids on radish - Brevicoryne brassicae - BugGuide.Net

  • Serious pest of Radish, attacked at seedling as well as at maturity stage.
  • If infestation is observed, spraying of Malathion 50EC@1ml/Litre of water should be done.
  • Repeat spray for two-three times at interval of 10days.

2) Stem borer

Specialty Cropportunities- Oriental RadishBe On The Lookout For Borers | Purdue University Pest&Crop newsletter


Malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml / lit.

2) Flea beetles and mustard saw fly : 

ID BuDDy: ENTOMOLOGY :- Insect Pests of Field Crops and their ManagementMustard Sawfly Larva | Project NoahHow to Get Rid of Flea Beetles - Dengarden


  • If infestation is observed in field, to control take spray of Malathion 50EC@1ml / Litre of water.
  • Repeat spray for two-three times at interval of 10 days.

1)Alternaria blight : Alternaria raphani

  • The pathogen affects leaves, stem, pods and seeds.
  • Symptoms of the disease first appear on the leaves of seed stem in the form of small, yellowish, slightly raised lesions.
  • Lesions appear later on the stems and seed pods.
  • Infection spreads rapidly during rainy weather, and the entire pod may be so infected that the styler end becomes black and shrivelled.
  • The fungus penetrates in pod tissues, ultimately infecting the seeds. The infected seed fails to germinate.


If infestation is observed, spraying of Mancozeb@2gm/lit of water or Carbendazim@1gm/lit of water should be done to control this disease.

2.White RustAlbugo candida


  • Disease attacks the leaves and flowering shoots.
  • Affected flowering shoots get deformed and bear only malformed flowers.
  • White powdery substance in patches is observed on the under surface of the leaves.


  • Regular spraying with Mancozeb 0.25 % effectively controls the disease.



20 – 30 t/ha in 45 – 60 days.

Crop Growing districts                  Vellore, Dindigul, Thanjavur, Niligris
Major markets in Tamil Nadu     Mettupalayam, Dindigul, Coimbatore and Chennai
Grade Specification                       Size, Shape