Botanical Name - Oryza sativa
Family - Poaceae

  • Rice is the most important food crop of India covering about one-fourth of the total cropped area and providing food to about half of the Indian population.
  • Punjab has made tremendous progress in rice productivity and production during the past 45 years.
  • Rice Growing Region in India: 
  • Rice is grown under so diverse soil and climatic conditions that it is said that there is hardly  any type of soil in which it cannot be grown including alkaline and acidic soils.
  • Rice crop has also  got wide physical adaptability.
  • Therefore, it is grown from below sea-level (Kuttanad area of  Kerala) upto an elevation of 2000 metres in Jammu & Kashmir, hills of Uttaranchal, Himachal  Pradesh and North-Eastern Hills (NEH) areas.
  • The rice growing areas in the country can be  broadly grouped into five regions as discussed below : 
    • North-Eastern Region:This region comprises Assam and North eastern states. In Assam rice is  grown in the basin of Brahmaputra river. This region receives very heavy rainfall and rice is  grown under rain fed conditions.  
    • Eastern Region: This region comprises Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh,  Orissa, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In this region rice is grown in the basins of Ganga  and Mahanadi rivers and has the highest intensity of rice cultivation in the country. This region  receives heavy rainfall and rice is grown mainly under rain fed conditions.  
    • Northern Region: This region comprises Haryana, Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand,  Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. The region experiences low winter temperature and a single crop of rice from May-July to September-December is grown.  
    • Western Region: This region comprises Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Rice is largely  grown under rainfed condition during June-August to October – December.  Due to use of high yielding varieties and new technology Punjab has given the title of “Rice Bowl of India”.
    • Southern Region: This region comprises Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.  Rice is mainly grown in deltaic tracts of Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery rivers and the non-deltaic  rain fed area of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in deltaic  tracts.

  • In India rice is grown under widely varying conditions of altitude and climate.
  • Rice cultivation in India  extends from 8 to 35ºN latitude and from sea level to as high as 3000 meters.
  • Rice crops need a hot and  humid climate. It is best suited to regions which have high humidity, prolonged sunshine and an assured  supply of water.
  • The average temperature required throughout the life period of the crop ranges from 21 to  37º C.
  • Maximum temp which the crop can tolerate is 40 C to 42 C.  

 Temperature at different stage:  

 Minimum temperature for sprouting is 100C at the time of tillering, the crop requires a high  temperature than for growth. 

  • Minimum temperature for flowering range from 22-23 C .
  • Temperature  requirement for blooming is in the range of 26.5 to 29.5º C. 
  • Minimum temperature for grain formation  from 20-21
  • Time of ripening the temperature should be between 20-25ºC.

    Critical temperature for the development of rice plant at different growth stages

Growth stages 

Critical temperature (0C) 








Seedling emergence 








Leaf elongation 








Initiation of panicle primordial 




Panicle differentiation 












  • The expected  climate change includes the rise in the global average surface air temperature.
  • At the end of the 21 st century, the increase in surface air temperature will probably be around 1.4-5.8 °C, relative to the  temperatures of 1980-1999, and with an increase in variability around this mean.
  • Most of the rice is currently cultivated in regions where temperatures are above the optimal for growth (28/22 °C).
  • Any further increase in mean temperature or episodes of high temperatures during sensitive stages may reduce  rice yields drastically.

Irrigated Rice EcoSystem:

  • Irrigated ecosystems are the primary type found in East Asia.
  • Irrigated  ecosystems provide 75 percent of global rice production.
  • In India, the total area under irrigated rice is  about 22.00 million hectares, which accounts for about 49.5 percent of the total area under rice crop in the  country.
  •  Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu  & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat.Irrigated  rice is grown in bunded (embanked), paddy fields.  

Rainfed Upland Rice EcoSystem:

  • Upland zones are found in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
  • In India, the total area under upland rainfed rice in the country is about 6.00 million hectares, which  accounts 13.5 percent of the total area under rice crop in the country.
  • Upland rice areas lies in the eastern zone  comprising Assam, Bihar, Eastern M.P., Orissa, Eastern U.P., West Bengal and North-Eastern Hill  region.
  • Upland rice fields are generally dry, unbunded, and directly seeded. Land utilized in upland rice  production can be low lying, drought-prone, rolling, or steep sloping.  

Rainfed Lowland Rice EcoSystem:

  • Rainfed low-land rice is grown in such areas as East India,  Bangladesh, Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand, and is 25 Percent of total rice area used worldwide.
  • In India, low land rice area is about 14.4 million hectares, which accounts 32.4 per cent of the total area  under rice crop in the country.
  • Production is variable because of the lack of technology used in rice  production. Rainfed lowland farmers are typically challenged by poor soil quality, drought/flood  conditions, and erratic yields 

Flood Prone Rice EcoSystem:

  • Flood-prone ecosystems are prevalent in South and Southeast Asia, and are characterized by periods of extreme flooding and drought.
  • Yields are low and variable.
  • Flooding  occurs during the wet season from June to November, and rice varieties are chosen for their level of  tolerance to submersion.  


  • It can be grown on a variety of soils with low permeability and pH varying from 5.0 to 9.5.
  • Sandy loam to loamy sand to silty loam to clay loams, silty to clayey loam soils with low permeability, free of water logging and sodicity are considered best for paddy cultivation.
  • Basmati Rice means the rice varieties possessing aroma and gives pleasant flavour after cooking.
  • In India  Basmati rice is characterized by extra long, superfine slender grains having a length to breadth ratio of  more than 3.5, sweet taste, soft texture, delicate curvature and an extra elongation with least breadth-wise  swelling on cooking.
  • Basmati rice is also stated to be the Pearl of Rice.
  • These superfine best quality Basmati rice are most preferred specially for Biryani and Pulao preparation on special occasions and  also meant for high premium value in the national and international market.  

     Traditional Area

  • Basmati rice is mostly grown in the traditional areas of north and north western part of Indian sub-continent for many centuries.
  • The super-fine best quality of Basmati rice is produced on either side of the Indus valley in India.
  • Its different varieties are mostly cultivated in the districts of Karnal, Panipat,  Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Amritsar, Fatehgarh, Gurudaspur, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Patiala, Ropar and  Sangrur in Punjab; Kangra, Solan, Una, Mandi and Sirmour in Himachal Pradesh; Bundi in Rajasthan and  in several districts of Uttar Pradesh.
  • Some important districts of Uttar Pradesh are Saharanpur, Muzaffar  Nagar, Piliphit, Bareilly, Bijnor, Moradabad, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Rampur, Raibareily, Sitapur and  Udham Singh Nagar; Haridwar and Dehradun in Uttaranchal. Also, Basmati rice is grown to a limited  extent in Jammu and Kashmir.  

Varieties:  The important varieties of Basmati rice as notified under the seeds Act, 1966 are Basmati 386 ,  Basmati 217 , Ranbir Basmati , Karnal Local/ Taraori Basmati, Basmati 370, Type-3 (Dehraduni  Basmati), Pusa Basmati-1, Pusa Basmati 1121, Punjab Basmati-1, Haryana Basmati- 1, Ranbir Basmati  (IET-11348),Kasturi and Mahi Sugandha. 

1.PR 128:

  • PR 128 of rice is an improved version of PAU 201.
  • It possesses long slender clear translucent grains.
  • Its average plant height is 110 cm and matures in about 111 days after transplanting.
  • Its average paddy yield is 30.5 quintals per acre.

2.PR 129:

  • PR 129 of rice is an improved version of PAU 201.
  • It is resistant to all the 10 presently prevalent pathotypes of bacterial blight pathogen in the Punjab state.
  • Its average paddy yield is 30.0 quintals per acre.

3.HKR 47:

  • HKR 47 is a mid-early maturity variety of rice.
  • It is susceptible to all the 10 presently prevalent pathotypes of bacterial blight pathogen in Punjab and is prone to lodging.
  • Its average yield is 29.5 quintals per acre.
  • It is suitable for parboiling.

4.PR 111:

  • It is short-statured, stiff strewed variety and it leave are erect and dark green in color.
  • Its grains are long, slender and clear.
  • It is resistant bacterial leaf blight disease and gives average yield of 27 qtl /acre.

5.PR 113:

  • It is short-statured, stiff strewed variety and its leave is erect and dark green in color.
  • Grain is bold and heavy.
  • It is resistant bacterial leaf blight disease and gives average yield of 28 qtl/acre.

6. PR 114:

  • It is semi-dwarf, stiff strewed variety having narrow, dark green erect leaves.
  • It matures in 145 days.
  • Its grains are extra-long, clear translucent grains with very good cooking quality.
  • It gives average yield of 27.5 qtl/acre”

7.PR 115:

  • It is semi-dwarf, stiff strewed variety having narrow, dark green erect leaves.
  • It matures in 125 days.
  • Its grains are long slender, translucent with good cooking quality.
  • It gives average yield of 25 qtl/acre.

8.PR 116:

It is semi-dwarf, stiff strewed variety.

  • It show resistant to lodging.
  • It matures in 144 days. Its grains are long, slender and translucent.
  • Its average yield is 28 quintals/acre.

9.PR 118:

  • It is a semi-dwarf, stiff strewed and lodging tolerant variety.
  • It matures in 158 days.
  • Its grains are medium slender with good cooking quality.
  • Its average yield is 29 qtl/acre.

10.PR 120:

  • It is semi dwarf variety with long slender and translucent grains with high cooking quality.
  • It matures in 132 days.
  • It gives average yield of 28.5 qtl/acre.
  • 11.PR 121:
  • It is short, stiff strewed variety.
  • It show resistant to lodging.
  • It is resistive to bacterial blight pathogen. It gives average yield of 30.5 qtl/acre. 

12.PR 122:

  • It is semi-dwarf, stiff strewed variety having dark green erect leaves.
  • It matures in 147 days.
  • It possesses long slender translucent grains with good cooking quality.
  • It gives average yield of 31.5 qtl/acre.
    13.PR 123:
  • It is semi dwarf, stiff strewed variety with dark green and erect leaves.
  • Its grains are long, slender and translucent.
  • It is moderately resistant to bacterial blight pathogen.
  • It gives average yield of 29 qtl/acre
  • 14.PR 126:
  • This variety is released by PAU for general cultivation in Punjab.
  • The variety is resistant to bacterial blight disease.
  • It gives an average yield of 30 qtl /acre.
  • 15.PR 127:
  • It is a medium maturing variety which matures in 137 days after seeding.
  • The plant attains the average height of 104cm.
  • The variety is not suitable for growing in alkali and brackish soils.
  • It gives an average yield of 30qtl/acre.
    16.CSR 30:
  • The variety has extra-long slender shaped grains which are known for its excellent cooking and good eating qualities.
  • The variety gets mature within 142 days after transplanting.
  • It gives an average yield of 13.5qtl/acre.
  • 17.Punjab Basmati 3:
  • Developed by PAU Ludhiana.
  • It has excellent cooking and eating quality.
  • It is improved version of basmati 386.
  • It is resistant to lodging and Bacterial Blight.
  • Its grains are extra-long and having excellent aroma. It give average yield of 16qtl/acre.
  • 18.Punjab Basmati 4:
  • It is a high yielding variety and semi dwarf variety which is 96cm tall.
  • It is a lodging tolerant variety and is resistant to bacterial blight. 
  • The variety gets mature within 146 days after transplanting.
  • It gives an average yield of 17qtls/acre.
    19.Punjab Basmati 5:
  • It is also a high yielding variety which gives an average yield of 15qtls/acre.
  • The variety gets mature within 137 days after transplanting.
  • 20 Pusa Punjab Basmati 1509: Early maturing variety i.e ready to harvest in 120 days. It is susceptible to bacterial blight. Its grains extra long, slender and possess excellent cooking quality. It is suitable for multiple cropping pattern. It gives average yield of 15.7 qtl/acre.

21.Pusa Basmati 1121:

  • Tall variety and ready to harvest in 137 days.
  • Aromatic variety with longest cooking length and having great cooking quality.
  • It gives average yield of 13.7 qtl/acre.
  • 22. Pusa 44:
  • Long duration variety and it is susceptible to bacterial blight.
    23.Pusa Basmati 1637:
  • Released in 2018.
  • The variety is moderately resistant to blast diseases.
  • The plant attains the height of 109cm.
  • The variety matures in 138 days and it gives an average yield of 17.5qtl/acre
    Other state varieties:
    1.Hybrid 6201:
  • Suitable for irrigated areas.
  • It give resistance to blast.
  • It gives average yield of 25 qtl/acre.
    2.Vivek Dhan 62:
  • Suitable for hilly and irrigated areas.
  • Its grains are short bold.
  • It gives resistant to blast.
  • Neck blast and it can survive in low temperature areas.
  • It give average yield of 19 qtl/acre.
    3.Karnataka Rice Hybrid 2:
  • Suitable for irrigated and timely sown areas.
  • It is tolerant to leaf blight and other disease.
  • It gives average yield of 35 qtl/acre.
    4.Ratnagiri 1 and 2:
  • Ratnagiri one suitable for irrigated areas while Ratnagiri 2 suitable for low land areas.
  • These are semi dwarf varieties and give average yield of 19 qtl/acre and 21 qtl/acre respectively.
  • After harvesting of wheat grow dhaincha (seed rate 20 kg/acre) or sunhemp @ 20 kg/acre or cowpea @ 12 kg/acre up to first week of May.
  • When crop is of 6-8 week old, bury them into the soil one day before transplanting of paddy. It will save 25 kg of N per acre.
  • Use laser land leveler for land levelling.


Ploughing is the primary tillage operations, which is performed to cut, break and invert the soil partially or completely suitable for sowing seeds.

Special technologies for problem soils

  • To obtain a deep seed bed of good texture.
  • To increase the water holding capacity of the soil.
  • To improve soil aeration.
  • To destroy weeds, insects and pests.
  • To add fertility to the soil by covering vegetation
  • After then puddle soil and to obtained fine well levelled puddle field to reduce water loss through percolation.

1. Harrowing

SMALL POWER TILLER while Harrowing in a Farmer's Rice fields - YouTube

 Harrowing is a secondary tillage operation which is done to a shallow depth for smoothening and pulverizing the soil as well as to cut the weeds and to mix the materials with the soil. 

Purpose of harrowing

  • To pulverize the soil of the seedbeds in the field.
  • To destroy grasses and seeds in the field.
  • To cut crop residues and mix them with top soil of the field.
  • To break the big clods and to make the field surface uniform and levelled.
  • Harrowing is carried out when the moisture content of the clods are reduced


Index of /agriculture/photo_bank/rice/images

  • Puddling is churning the soil with water.
  • It is done in paddy fields with standing water of 5-10 cm depth after initial ploughing with country plough. 
  • It breaks up the clods and churns the soil.

Purpose of puddling

  • To reduce leaching of water or decrease percolation of water,
  • To kill the weeds by decomposition.
  • To facilitate transplantation of paddy seedlings by making the soil softer. 
  • To decrease water and nutrient losses by reduced hydraulic conductivity.


RICE FARMING | Leveling the field with a Carabao - YouTube

Land levelling is expected to bring permanent improvement in the value of land. Levelling work is carried out to modify the existing contours of land for efficient agricultural production system

Purpose of Levelling

  • Efficient application of irrigation water and increased conservation of rain water.
  • Improve surface drainage and minimize soil erosion
  • Provision of an adequate field size and even topography for efficient mechanisation.
  • Perfect land leveling for efficient weed and water management.
  • Improves better crop stands and crop establishment

Selection of Seeds  

The use of quality seeds in cultivation of rice is an important factor to get better crop yield.

Therefore,  proper care has to be taken in selecting seeds of the best quality. Much of the success in raising healthy  seedlings depends on the quality of seed. Seeds intended for sowing should satisfy the following  requirements :-  

  • The seed should belong to the proper variety, which is proposed to be grown. 
  • The seed should be clean and free from obvious mixtures of other seeds.  
  • The seed should be mature, well developed and plump in size.  
  • The seed should be free from obvious signs of age or bad storage 
  • The seed should have a high germinating capacity. 
Seed Rate:
8 kg seeds are sufficient for planting in one acre land.
Seed treatment:
  • Before sowing, soak them in 10 Ltr water containing, Carbendazim @20gm+ Streptocycline@1gm for 8 to 10 hour before sowing.
  • After then dry seeds in shade. And then use for sowing.
  • Also you can use below mention fungicides to protect crop from root rot disease. Use chemical fungicides first then treat seed with Trichoderma
  • Trichoderma 5-10 gm/kg of seeds
  • Chlorpyriphos 5 ml/kg of seeds
Time of sowing:
20 may to 5 june is the optimum time for sowing
  • For normal sown crop a spacing of 20 – 22.5 cm between rows is recommended.
  • When sowing is delayed a closer spacing of 15-18 cm should be adopted.
Method of sowing:
Broadcasting method
Sowing depth:
The seedlings should be transplanted at 2 to 3 cm depth. Shallow planting gives better yields.
  • Before sowing, soak them in 10 Ltr water containing, Carbendazim@20gm+ Streptocycline@1gm for 8 to 10 hour before sowing.
  • After then dry seeds in shade. And then use for sowing.
Nursery Preparation: 15th to 30th May is the optimum time for nursery preparation.
1. Wet bed nursery:
  • It is done in region having adequate water availability.
  • Nursery area is about 1/10 of the area to be transplanted.
  • Broadcast Pre-germinated seeds on puddled and levelled soil.
  • Keep the beds moist for the first few days. Do not flood the beds.
  • When the seedlings are about 2 cm high, keep the beds submerged in a shallow layer of water.
  • Apply dose of 26 kg/acre Urea about a fortnight after sowing.
  • For transplantation use seedlings of 15-21 days or when seedlings are 25-30 cm long.
  • Regularly irrigated the nursery.
2. Dry Bed:
  • It is prepared in dry soil condition.
  • Total seed bed area is about 1/10 of the area to be transplanted.
  • Make seed bed of convenient dimensions with the soil raised at height of 6-10 cm.
  • Spread half burned rice husk on these beds for easy uprooting.
  • Irrigation should be done properly because less moisture can damage seedling. Incorporate basal fertilizer for proper nutrients.
3. Modified Mat nursery:
  • This is the modified method of nursery making which require less space and less quantity of seeds.
  • It can be cultivated at any place having flat surface and assured water supply. The area needed is about 1% of the transplantable land.
  • Establishing seedlings in 4 cm layer of soil mix, arranged on a firm surface.
  • Make 1 meter wide and 20-30 meter long plot and spread plastic sheet or banana leaves on it.
  • Place a wooden frame with 4 cm deep and then fill the frame with soil mixture. Sow pre-germinated seed in it and cover the seed with dry soil.
  • Immediately sprinkle water on it. Irrigate frame as and when needed and keep it moist.
  • Seedlings are ready for transplanting within 11 to 14 days of sowing.
  • Transport seedling mat to field and separate them and transplant 1-2 seedlings at 20×20 cm or 25×25 cm spacing.
Depth of planting:
  • The seedlings should be transplanted at 2 to 3 cm depth. Shallow planting gives better yields.
Method of Transplanting
1) Flat puddled transplanting:
  • Transplant seedlings in line at 20×15 cm for normal and 15×15 cm for late transplanting.
  • Put 2 seedlings per hill and the seedlings should be transplanted upright and about 2-3 cm deep.
2) Bed Transplanting:
  • Transplant seedlings on middle of slopes of bed.
  • These bed are prepared by wheat bed planter in heavy soil.
  • Before transplanting irrigate the furrows, then transplant seedlings by maintaining a plant to plant distance of 9 cm.
3) Mechanical transplanting:
  • For transplanting Mat type nursery, mechanical transplanter are used.
  • It transplant seedlings at spacing of 30×12 cm.
  • The soil in the transplanted rice fields after puddling develops two zones in waterlogged  conditions. 
  • The upper layer of soils (1 to10 mm, thick) generally receives Oxygen periodically  from fresh supplies of irrigation water and turns into a brown colour called “Oxidised zone” and reacts like  an unflooded upland soil.
  • The remaining lower portion of puddled soil without oxygen is called “reduced zone”.
  • When ammonical nitrogen fertilizer is applied in such soils, it gets oxidized to nitrate (NO3 ) form  in the oxidized zone (upper surface layer of the soil).
  • Afterwards nitrate nitrogen is leached down to the  reduced zone and further gets denitrified to gaseous nitrogen. This gaseous nitrogen is lost.
  • If ammonical  nitrogen is incorporated into the reduced zone of the soil, where it is held, the loss can be prevented. 
  • Fertilizers containing nitrogen in the nitrate form are more susceptible to loss of nitrogen through the leaching  and denitrification process.
  • Therefore, ammonical form of nitrogen is found more beneficial for rice crop.  
  •  Due to variation in soil fertility, rainfall and climatic condition, a common dose of fertilizer can not  be recommended for all regions.
  • However, in general a level of 30 to 40 kg of nitrogen per hectare in  kharif and 60 to 80 kg of nitrogen per hectare in rabi appears to be the optimum dose for the tall indicas  and double that level for the high yielding varieties on soils of average fertility in the southern and eastern regions
  • In the northern region, where sunshine is available for longer hours, higher doses of nitrogen are beneficial in the kharif season.  
  • The maximum efficiency can be obtained in the directly seeded upland rice by applying 50%  nitrogen dose, three weeks after seeding, 30 percent at 45 days of age and the rest at the boot-leaf stage.  
  • In order to obtain better results, full dose of phosphorus, potash and half dose of nitrogen should be applied before last puddling.
  • Remaining half dose of nitrogen should be applied in two equal doses, first at  tillering stage and second dose at panicle initiation stage.  

 Nutrient Management-

 Application of Biofertilizers :

  • Raise Azolla as a dual crop by inoculating 500 kg/ha 7 to 10 DAT and then incorporate during weeding for the wet season crop.
  • Two kg each of biofertilizers viz., Azsopirillum, Phosphobacteria (or) Azophos, Silicate solubilizing bacteria (SSB) / Potash bacteria (KRB) with 25kg of FYM  and 25 kg of and broadcast uniformly before transplanting.
  • 500 ml each of biofertilizers viz., Azsopirillum, Phosphobacteria (or) Azophos, Silicate solubilizing bacteria (SSB) / Potash bacteria (KRB) with 25kg of FYM  and 25 kg of sand and broadcast uniformly before transplanting.

Root Dipping :

  • Prepare the slurry with Azospirillum , Phosphobacteria and Potash release bacteria each 1 kg/ha in 40 lit. of water and dip the root portion of the seedlings for 15-30 minutes in bacterial suspension and transplant.
  • Liquid Azospirillum , Phosphobacteria and Potash release bacteria each 250ml/ha in 40 lit. of water and dip the root portion of the seedlings for 15 – 30 minutes in bacterial suspension and transplant.
  • Zinc Deficient Soils: Along with existing recommended biofertilizers, 2 kg each zinc solubilizing bacterium with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of sand and broadcast uniformly before transplanting.

Terminal Water Stress: Foliar spray@ 500 ml/ha of Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotroph at panicle initiation & flag leaf stages) for mitigation of  terminal drought.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)
UREA – 110
DAP or SSP – 27/75
MOP – 20
Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)
  • For paddy apply N:P:K@ 50:12:12 kg/acre in form of Urea @110 kg/acre, SSP@75 kg / acre and MOP@20 kg/acre.
  • Before fertilizer application, carried out soil test and apply fertilizer on the basis of soil test result.
  • Apply P and K dose if soil test show deficiency of it.
  • If DAP is to be used, apply Urea @100 kg /acre, DAP@ 27 kg / acre and MOP@ 20 kg / acre.
  • Apply 1/3rd dose of Nitrogen and whole dose of P and K before last puddling.
  • Apply second dose three week after transplanting and three weeks after 2nd dose, apply remaining dose of Nitrogen.
  • Use neem coated Urea as it will increased uptake of N.
  • Apply Zinc sulphate heptahydrate@25 kg or zinc sulphate monohydrate@16 kg/acre at puddling to overcome zinc deficiency.
  • Due to water scarcity, young leaves give yellow or yellow white appearance about three week after transplanting.
  • Apply irrigation immediately also spray with ferrous sulphate@1 kg/100 ltr water per acre, two-three time with weekly intervals.
Plant Growth Regulators

1. Foliar spray of Brassino steriods 0.3 ppm at Panicle Initiation and Flowering stages increased the grain yield.
2. For increasing the rooting under broadcast method of planting, soaking roots in 25 ppm IBA gave best results.
3. Induction of better rooting for early establishment in rice, root dipping for 16 hours in thiamin solution.

  • Use Butachlor 50 EC @ 1200 ml/acre or Thiobencarb 50 EC @ 1200 ml or Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 1000 ml or Pretilachlor 50 EC @ 600 ml per acre as pre-emergence herbicides, 2 to 3 days after transplanting.
  • Mix any one of these herbicides in 60 kg of sand per acre and broadcast uniformly in 4-5 cm deep standing water.
  • For broadleaf weed control, apply Metsulfuron 20 WP @ 30 gm/acre in 150 Ltr water as post emergence, 20-25 days after transplanting.
  • Before spray, drained out the standing water from the field and apply irrigation one day after spray.
  • The water requirement of rice crop is comparatively higher than any other crop of the similar duration.
  • Assured and timely supply of irrigation water has a considerable influence on the yield of the  crop.

During the crop growth period, the water requirement is generally high at the initial seedling establishment stage. 

Rice varieties range in duration from 90 to more than 150 days and with three main crop stages: 

  • Vegetative (from germination to panicle initiation, from 45 to 100 days)
  •  Reproductive (from panicle initiation to flowering, around 35 days
  • Maturity (from flowering to mature grain, around 30 days)
  • After the transplanting , water should be allowed to stand in the field at a depth of  two to five centimeters till the seedlings are well established. (2-5 cm)
  • The second, the most important critical stage  is tillering to flowering and in this period the crop should not be subjected to soil moisture stress.
  • The  water supply should be ensured in the required amount during panicle initiation to flowering stage. 
  • About five  centimeters depth of water should be maintained in the field up to the dough stage of the crop. (5 cm depth)
  • Before  harvesting, water should be drained out from the field to allow quick and uniform maturity of grain.  


  • Drain the water 18 to 24 hrs after sowing
  • Care must be taken to avoid stagnation of water on the seedbed.
  • Allow enough water to saturate the soil from 3rd to 5th day. 
  • From 5th day onwards,increase the water depth to 1.5 cm depending on the height of the seedlings.
  • Thereafter maintain 2.5cm depth of water

       Main field

  • Puddling and levelling minimizes the water requirement
  • Plough with tractor drawn cage wheel to reduce percolation losses and to save water requirement up to 20%.
  • Maintain 2.5 cm of water over the puddle and allow the green manure to decompose for a minimum of 7 days in the case of less fibrous plants like  sunhemp and 15 days for more fibrous green manure plants like Kolinchi (Tephrosia purpurea).
  • At the time of transplanting, a shallow depth of 2 cm of water is adequate since high depth of water will lead to deep planting resulting in reduction of tillering.
  • Maintain 2 cm of water for up to seven days of transplanting.
  • Moisture stress due to inadequate water at the rooting and tillering stage causes poor root growth leading to reduction in tillering, poor stand and low yield.
  • Critical stages of water requirement in rice are
  • a) panicle initiation,
  • b) booting,
  • c) heading and
  • d) flowering.
  • During these stages, the irrigation interval should not exceed the stipulated time so as to cause the depletion of moisture below the saturation level.
  • During booting and maturity stages continuous inundation of 5 cm and above leads to advancement in root decay and leaf senescence,delay in heading and reduction in the number of filled grains per panicle and poor harvest index.
  • Provide adequate drainage facilities to drain excess water or strictly follow irrigation schedule of one day after disappearance of ponded water.Last irrigation may be 15 days ahead of harvest

 Precautions for irrigation

  • The field plot size can be 25 to 50 cents depending on the source of irrigation.
  • Field to field irrigation should be avoided. Field should be irrigated individually from a channel.
  • Small bund may be formed parallel to the main bund of the field at a distance of 30 to 45 cm within
    the field to avoid leakages of water through main bund crevices.
  • In waterlogged condition, form open drains, about 60 cm in depth and 45 cm width across the field.
  • Care should be taken not to allow development of cracks.
  • In the canal command area, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater may be resorted to for judicious use of water.

Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation (AWDI)

Crop Production :: Rice

  • Safe Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation (AWDI) is to monitor the depth of ponded water on the field using ‘Field Water Tube’ (FWT) which is made of a 40 cm long plastic pipe with a diameter of 15 cm so that the water table is easily visible.
  • Tube is perforated with 0.5 cm diameter holes in the bottom and the top 15 cm portion is non-perforated.
  • One Field Water Tube is required for adopting the AWDI in an area of 1 acre. The FWT is installed in the field using a mallet and it is inserted up to the perforated portion buried inside the soil. The soil inside the tube is to be removed.
  • FWT to be installed near the field levies so that the water level inside the FWT could be monitored easily.
  • Safe AWDI of 10 cm depletion in light soils and 15 cm depletion in heavy soils was found to improve the water use efficiency in rice.

Pest and their control:

 1.Thrips: Stenchaetothrips biformis

Thrips Damage In Rice

Symptoms of damage:                                                     

  • Leaf shows discoloration and rolling
  • Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings
  • Terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base
  • It causes damage both in nursery and main field
  • Leaf tips wither off when severely infested.


  • ETL: 60 numbers in 12 wet palm sweeps or rolling of the first and second leaves in 10% of seedlings.
  • Spray Azadirachtin 0.15% @ 600-1000 ml/acre
  • Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 40 g/acre

 2.Brown plant leafhopper: Nilaparvata lugens

Symptoms of damage:

  • Nymphs and adults congregate at the base of the plant above the water level.
  • Affected plant dries up and gives a scorched appearance called “hopper burn”.
  • Circular patches of drying and lodging of matured plant.
  • It transmits  grassy stunt, ragged stunt and wilted stunt diseases.
  • Honey dew is secreted by nymphs and adults which causes sooty mould at the base.


      ETL: 10% Dead heart symptoms 2% white ear symptoms

  • Clip the seedling tips before transplanting to eliminate egg masses.
  • Install light trap @ 1 / ha and pheromone trap @ 5 / ac.
  • Release egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum @ 2cc /ac 3 times at weely interval.
  • Spray Neem seed kernel extract 5% or Azadirachtin 0.03% 400 ml/ac.
  • Spray any one of the following insecticides
    • Acephate 75 % SP 267-400 g/ac
    • Carbofuran 3% CG 10 kg/ac
    • Carbosulfan 6% G 6.7 kg/ac
    • Carbosulfan 25% EC 320-400 ml/ac

3.Leaf folder:


  • This pest develops in high humidity and specifically found where rice is fertilized heavily.
  • Larva fold the leaves and eat the plant tissue and produces white streaks.
  • Control: If infestation is observed spray crop with Cartap hydrochloride @ 170 gm or Triazophos @350 ml or Chlorpyriphos @1 Ltr in 100 Ltr of water per acre.

4.Rice Hispa:


  • It is serious pest in some districts.
  • Larva create tunnel into leaves and thus destroyed leaves by producing white streaks on leaves.
  • Management-
  • If Infestation is observed in field, spray crop with Methyl Parathion@120 ml or Quinalphos 25 EC@400 ml or Chlorpyriphos @1 Ltr in 100 ltr of water per acre.

5.Stem borer:


  • Larva bore into the stem and causes dead heart.
  • The old ones produce empty ear heads which turn white.


If infestation is observed in field take spray of Cartap hydrochloride @ 170 gm or Triazophos @ 350 ml or Chlorpyriphos @ 1 Ltr per 100 Ltr of water.

6.Gall midge: Orseolia oryzae

 Symptoms of damage:

  • Maggot feeds at the base of the growing shoot
  • Feeding causes formation of a tube-like gall that is similar to “onion leaf” or “Silver-shoot”.
  • Infested tillers produce no panicles.


      ETL: 10% silver shoots

  • Release Platygaster oryzae parasitised galls at 1/10 sq.m on 10 days after transplanting (DAT)
  • Harvest the crop and plough immediately
  • Remove the alternate hosts and adopt early planting
  • Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer
  • Setup infrared light trap and monitor the adult flies
  • Spray any one of the following insecticides
    • Phosalone 35 EC 600 ml/ac
    • Carbosulfan 25% EC 320-400 ml/ac
    • Chlorpyriphos 20% EC 500 ml/ac

 Important Pest 



Control measures 


Stem-borer,gall midge,thrips, root-knot  nematode, root-nematodes and white tip  nematode 

  • For insect-pests and nematodes, apply Phorate 10 G @ 12.5  kg/ha or Fipronil 0.3 G @ 33 kg/ha of nursery, 5 to 7 days  before pulling the seedlings for transplanting or spray with  Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 2,500 ml/ha or Quninalphos 25 EC  @ 2,000 ml/ha.  
  • In the stem-borer endemic areas, install pheromone traps with  5 mg lure @ 8 traps/ha for pest monitoring and 20 traps/ha  for direct control through mass trapping  
  • In Gall midge/stem-borer-endemic areas apply phorate 10  G/ha 5 to 7 days before pulling the seedlings for  transplanting. 




  • Clipping of leaf tips of the seedlings at the time of  transplanting will help in destruction of egg masses.  
  • Removal of excess nursery and incorporation into soil
  • Clean cultivation and destruction of stubbles.  
  •  Apply Cartap 4 G @ 25 kg/ha or Phorate 10 G @ 10 kg/ha or  Fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg/ha or Chlorpyriphos 10 G @ 10  kg/ha.  
  • Install pheromone traps with 5 mg lure @ 8 traps/ha for pest  monitoring or 20 traps/ha for direct control through mass  trapping. Replace lures at 25 to 30 days interval during the  crop period.  
  • Inundative release of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma  japonicum 5 to 6 times @ 100,000 adults/ha starting from 15  days after transplanting. 

Gall midge 

  • Apply Fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg/ha or Phorate 10 G @ 10 kg/ha 

Green leafhopper 

  • Spray Carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g ha or BPMC 50 EC @ 600  ml/ha or Acephate 50 WP @ 700 g/ha or Ethofenprox 10 Ec  @ 500 ml/ha or Imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml/ha or  Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g/ha or Clothianidin 50 WDG  30 g/ha. 
  • Alternatively, apply Phorate 10 G @ 12.5 kg/h or  Fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg/ha. 


Spray Triazophos 40 EC @ 400 ml/ha or Phosalone 35 EC @  850 ml/ha or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1,500 ml/ha or 


Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1,200 ml/ha or Ethofenprox 10 EC @  450 ml/ha or Fipronil 5 SC @ 600 ml/ha 

Leaf folder 

  • Spray Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1,500 ml/ha or Cartap 50 WP  @ 600 g/ha or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1,200 ml/ha or Acephate  50 WP @ 700 g/ha or Fipronil 5 SC @ 600 ml/ha or  Phosalone 35 EC @ 850 ml/ha or Carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g/ha  or Triazophos 40 EC @ 400 ml/ha or apply Cartap 4 g @ 25  kg/ha  
  • Inundative release of egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis 5  to 6 times @ 100,000 adults/ha starting from 15 days after  transplanting 


Whorl maggot 

  • Apply Fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg/ha or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @  1,500 ml/Ha 

Case worm 

  • Drain water from the field and spray Carbaryl 50 WP @ 900  g/ha or apply Carbaryl dust @ 30 kg/ha 

Mealy bug 

  • Spot application of Phorate 10 G granules 

Reproductive  Stage


  • Spray Cartap 50 WP @ 800 g/ha or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @  2,000 ml/ha or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1,600 ml/h 

Brown planthopper,  White backed  planthopper 

  • Spray Imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml/ha or Thiamethoxam 25  WG @ 100 g/ha or Ethofenprox 10 EC @ 500 ml/ha or  Acephate 50 WP @ 950 g/ha or BPMC 50 EC @ 600 ml/ha or  Carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g/ha 

Green leafhopper 

  • Spray Imidacloprid 200 SL @ 125 ml/ha or Thiamethoxam 25  WG @ 100 g/ha or Ethofenprox 10 EC @ 500 ml/ha or  Acephate 50 WP @ 950 g/ha or BPMC 50 EC @ 600 ml/ha or  Carbaryl 50 WP @ 900 g/ha 

Leaf folder 

  • Spray Cartap 50 WP @ 800 g/ha or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @  2,000 ml/ha or Phosalone 35 EC @ 1,100 ml/ha or Quinalphos  25 EC @ 1,600 ml/ha or Triazophos 40 EC @ 500 ml/ha or  apply Cartap 4 G @ 25 kg/ha 

Ear-cutting caterpillar/  cut worm 

  • Spray Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1,600 ml/ha or Chlorpyriphos 20  EC @ 2,000 ml/ha or Carbaryl 50 WP @ 1,500 g/ha or  Phosalone 35 EC @ 1,100 ml/ha 

Leaf/Panicle mite 

  • Spray Sulphur wettable powder @ 3 g/litre, Dicofol @ 5.0  /ml/ litre or Profenophos 50 EC @ 2.0 ml/litre water. 

Gundhi bug 

  • Spray Carbaryl 50 WP @ 1,500 g/ha during afternoon hours.  
  • Dust Malathion or Carbaryl @ 30 kg of the formulation/ha 


Deficiency Symptoms

  • Stunted plant growth
  • Older leaves are yellowish green
  • In severe cases, all leaves become light green
  • Leaves become narrow, short, erect and lemon-yellowish green

Correction Measures

  • Soil application of urea @ 330/ha  (110/ ac at three times)
  • Foliar application of urea 1% (10 g/lit) at 15 days interval till the symptoms disappear


Deficiency Symptoms

  • Plants stunted with reduced tillering.
  • Leaves narrow, short, very erect ‘dirty’ dark green. 
  • Older leaves turn brown red and purple colours develop in leaves

Correction Measures

  • Foliar application of 2% DAP (20g/lit) two times at 15 days interval (2kg of DAP should be soaked in 20 lit of water over night and filter the solution in the next day morning).
  • Add one lit of solution per tank (10 lit tank) and 20 tank (200lit) should be sprayed for an acre


Deficiency Symptoms

  • Scorching of leaf margins and tip
  • Symptoms first appear on older leaves
  • Rusty brown spots on the leaves and panicles

Correction Measures

  • Foliar spray of 1 % K 2SO4 or 1 % KCl (10g/lit) at 15 days interval up to the disappearance of symptoms.



Deficiency Symptoms

  • chlorotic – necrotic split or rolled tips of younger leaves.
  • Necrotic tissues appear along the lateral margins.

Correction Measures

  • Apply 1 % CaCl2 (10g/lit) as foliar spray
  • Apply gypsum (500kg/ha) in Ca-deficient high pH soils



Deficiency Symptoms

  • Orange-yellow coloration on older leaves and tip become white
  • The leaves are wavy and droopy

Correction Measures

  • Foliar application of 0.5 % MgSO4 (5g/lit), two times at 15 days interval.
  • 6.Sulphur

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Pale green younger leaves with necrotic tip
  • Reduced tillers with shortened panicles

Correction Measure

  • Foliar application of 0.5 % wettable sulphur (5g/lit), two times at 15 days interval.



Deficiency Symptoms

  • Bluish green leaves with chlorotic streaks on either side of the midrib followed by appearance of dark brown necrotic lesions on the needle like leaf tips.
  • Reduced tillering

Correction Measures

  • Apply Copper Sulphate 0.2 % (2g/lit), two times as foliar spray at 15 days interval.



Deficiency Symptoms

  • Interveinal chlorosis in young leaves
  • Whole Leaves become chlorotic and then very pale
  • Decreased dry matter production

Correction Measure

  • Apply ferrous sulphate @ 0.5 % (5g/lit) as foliar spray, two times at 15 days interval


Deficiency Symptoms

  • Leaf base of younger leaves become chlorotic
  • Dusty brown spots on younger leaves
  • Stunted growth, low tillering and increased spikelet sterility

Correction Measures

  • Apply ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha
  • Foliar spray of 0.5 % ZnSO4 ( 5g/lit), two times at 15 days interval


Rice - B

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Reduced plant height
  • Leaf tips become white in colour and rolled

Correction Measures

  • Soil application of borax at @ 10 kg/ha
  • Foliar spray of 0.3% boric acid (3g/lit), two times at 15 days interval

Disease and their control:

1.Blast : Magnaporthe oryzae (Syn: P. grisea, Magnaporthe grisea)


  • Due to blast disease, spindle shaped spots with greyish centre and brown margin observed on the leaves.
  • Also give neck rot symptoms and panicles get fall over.
  • Observed in areas having excessive use of Nitrogen.
  • The fungus attacks the crop at all stages of crop growth from seedling to late tillering and ear heading stage.
  • If infestation is observed, spray with Zineb@500 gm/acre in 200 Ltr of water.

2.Karnal Bunt:


  • Few grains in panicle get affected first and part of grain gets converted into black powder.
  • In severe condition whole panicle gets affected and black powder spread on leaves, grains etc.


  • To control this disease, avoid excess use of Nitrogen.
  • When crop is at 10% flowering stage, take spray of Tilt 25 EC @200 ml/200 litre of water. Repeat the spray with interval of 10 days.

3.Brown leaf spot:


  • It produces oval, eye-shaped spots with a conspicuous dark-brown dot in the centre and light brown margin.
  • Spots are developed on grains also.
  • In low nutrient soil, this attacked more.
  • The fungus attacks the crop from seedling to milky stage in main field
  • Symptoms appear as minute spots on the coleoptile, leaf blade, leaf sheath, and glume, being most prominent on the leaf blade and glumes.
  • Management-
  • To keep check on this disease, give balance amount of nutrient.
  • When crop is at boot stage take spray of Tebuconazole @ 200 ml or Propiconazole @200 ml in 200 Ltr of water.
  • After 15 days repeat the spray.

4.False smut:


  • This fungus developed large greenish velvety spore-balls on individual grains.
  • In humid, high rainfall and cloudy conditions, chances of spread of disease are high.
  • Excessive use of Nitrogen also increases intensity of attack.
  • To control this disease spray with 500 gm Copper Oxychloride per acre in 200 Ltr of water at boot stage in crop.
  • With interval of 10 days, take spray with Tilt 25 EC @ 200 ml/200 liters of water.

5.Sheath blight:


  • On leaf sheath, greyish lesion with purple margin is developed.
  • Later these lesions get developed and enlarge.
  • In severe condition, poor grain filling is observed.
  • Avoid excess use of Nitrogen.
  • Keep field clean.
  •  Favourable Conditions :

    • Closer planting, high doses of nitrogen, high humidity and temperature around 25-30 C.
    • Injuries made by leaf folder, brown plant hopper and mites increase infection.


If incidence of disease is observed, spray crop with Tebuconazole or Tilt 25 EC@200 ml or Carbendazim 25% @200 gm in 200 Ltrs of water per acre. Repeat the spray after 15 days interval.

Disease/Crop  stage/season 

States/Places endemic 

Control measures 

Leaf blast  

Nursery and  vegetative  Kharif and  rabi 

  • Leaf blast is favoured by the low night  temperature (22-28 oC), high relative humidity(>95%),dew deposit,leaf wetness for more than10 hours and high nitrogen. 
  • The disease is a  serious problem in upland,irrigated and hilly  ecosystems. In high rainfall zones (rainfall  >_1,500 mm) of north and north-eastern India,  the disease is prevalent during June-September.  
  • In Western and Central India (rainfall around  1,000 mm) the disease occurs during August-October. 
  • In Southern India, blast mainly occurs  in the dry season during November-February.  
  • During kharif season, the disease is prevalent  throughout the rice-growing areas in India  especially in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand,  Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,  Asom, Tripura, West Bengal, Orissa, parts of  Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka  and Tamil Nadu.
  • During rabi season, the disease is prevalent in  Southern States like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil  Nadu, Karnataka. The disease is also common on  boro rice in the states of Assam, Tripura, Eastern  Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal. 
  • In endemic areas, adopt seed  treatment with Tricyclazole 75  WP @ 2 g/kg or Carbendazim 50  WP @ 1 g/kg.  
  • Spray Tricyclazole 75 @ 0.6  g/litre or Carpropamid 30 SC @  1 ml/litre. or  Isoprothiolane 40 EC @ 1.5  ml/litre or Iprobenphos 48 EC @  2ml /litre or Propiconazole 25 EC  @ 1ml/ litre or Kasugamycin-B 3  SL@2.5 ml/litre or Carbendazim  50 WP @ 1 g/litre.  
  • Grow resistant/tolerant varieties  like Rasi, IR 64, Prasanna, IR 36,  Vikas, Tulasi, Sasyasree etc. 

Neck blast  


and after  kharif/rabi 

  • The neck blast phase of the disease is prevalent  in the states like Andhra Pradesh, Assam,  Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka,  Orissa and Uttarakhand. 
  • The disease is of  common occurrence in boro rice in the states of  Assam and Tripura. 
  • Spray Tricyclazole 75 WP @ 0.6  g/litre or Carpropamid 30 SC @ 1  ml/litre or Isoprothiolane 40 EC  @ 1.5 ml/litre or Iprobenphos 48  EC @ 2 ml/litre or Propiconazole  25 EC @ 1 ml/litre or  Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1 g/litre. 

Sheath blight  Maximum  



initiation to  booting stage  kharif/rabi. 

  • Sheath blight is a serious problem in coastal and  high rainfall areas. 
  • The disease is mostly  prevalent in areas where the relative humidity is  very high (>95%), the temperature is  moderate(28-320C) and N application is high.  
  • The disease is prevalent in moderate to severe  form in states like Andhra Pradesh(coastal), 
  • Spray Validamycin 3 L @ 2.5  ml/litre or Thifluzamide 24 SC  @ 0.75 g/litre or Hexaconazole 5  EC @ 2 ml/litre or Propiconazole  25 EC @ 1ml/litre or  Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1g/litre  
  • Reduce or delay the top-dressing 

Assam, Bihar, parts of Chhattisgarh, Orissa,  eastern Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala,  Haryana and Punjab. 

  • In boro season the disease  has been observed regularly in moderate form in  the states of Assam, Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh. 

or nitrogen fertilizer and apply in  2-3 splits 

Brown spot  Vegetative  



  • Brown spot is a problem mainly during kharif  season especially in uplands and hill ecosystem.  
  • The disease also assumes a serious proportion in  irrigated ecosystem especially in ill-managed  plots. 
  • The disease is predominant in Jharkhand,  eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, tarai  region of West Bengal, Orissa, Assam, Tripura,  Uttarakhand and Punjab. 
  • Boro rice disease has been recorded in the states of Assam,  Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. 
  • In endemic area, adopt seed  treatment with Carbendazim  (12%) + Mancozeb(63%)  combination 75 WP @ 2 g/kg or  Carbendazim 50 WP@2 g/kg or  Mancozeb (63%) 75 WP @ 2  g/litre or Mancozeb 75 WP @  2.5 g/litre  
  • Growing Of resistant/tolerant  varieties like Rasi, Jagnanath, IR  36 etc. 

False smut  





  • False smut of rice has emerged as a major  disease in recent years. 
  • The incidence of the  disease is particularly more on hybrid varieties.  
  • The incidence of the disease is more in those  years when spells of wet weather coincide with  the heading stage. 
  • The disease is favoured by the  prevalence of relatively low temperature and  high humidity with moderate rainfall well  distributed during the period of flowering. 
  • The  incidence of the disease is more in states like  Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Bihar,  Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Orissa, Uttar  Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and  Kashmir, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. 
  • Spray Propiconazole 25 EC @ 1  ml/litre or Chlorothalonil 75 WP  @2ml/litre or Copper  oxychloride at around flowering. 

Sheath rot  and grain  discoloration   Post 




  • Sheath rot and grain discolouration are  especially more in crops affected by stem-borer,  rice Tungro disease and various other biotic and  abiotic stresses. 
  • In cytoplasmic male sterile lines  (A lines ) where the emergence of the panicles is  poor, the incidence of sheath rot is very high.  
  • Grain discolouration of rice has become a  serious problem in recent years especially when  there is post-flowering rain. 
  • A variety of microorganisms, viz. Drechslera Oryzae, Sarocladium  oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Curvularia spp.,  Epicoccum sp., Fusarium moniliforme etc. have  been found associated with the grain  discoloration. These problems have become 
  • In endemic area adopt seed  treatment with Mancozeb 75 WP  @ 2.5 g/kg or Captan 50 WP 
  • ∙ 
  • Spray Mancozeb 75 WP @2.5g/kgor Propiconazole 25 EC@1ml/litre or Hexaconazole 5 EC  @ 2 ml/litre or Thiophanate  methyl 70 WP @ 1 g/litre. 

wide spread in states like Andhra Pradesh, TamilNadu, Kerala, Orissa, Jharkhand, Bihar, WestBengal, Assam, eastern Uttar Pradesh,Gujarat,Haryana,Punjab, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh. 


Stem rot  


initiation to  booting  


  • Stem rot of rice has become an important disease  of rice causing substantial loss due to increased  lodging. 
  • The disease is favoured by high N  fertilizers, high relative humidity, high  temperature and waterlogging conditions. 
  • The  disease is more in early planted crop because of  high temperature and relative humidity  prevailing during the susceptible stage of the  crop. 
  • The disease is prevalent in Haryana, Bihar,  Uttarakhand and Andhra Pradesh. 
  • Burning the rice stubbles after  harvest.  
  • Draining out the field.  
  • Addition of organic manure  reduces the disease.  
  •  Spray Iprobenphos 48 EC @ 2  g/litre ofCarbendazim 50 WP @  1 g/litre or Thiophanate methyl  70 WP 1 g/litre or Isoprothiolane  40 EC @ 1.5 ml/litre.  
  • Growing resistant varieties  like Jalmagna, Latisali, Pankaj,  Rasi, etc. 

Foot rot/  





  • Though the disease is of limited occurrence, it  has the potential to be highly serious. 
  • The disease  is prevalent in Haryana, Tamil Nadu and Andhra  Pradesh. 
  • Seed dressing with Captafol 80%  @ 4 g/kg or Mancozeb 75 WP @  2.75 g/kg.  
  •  When observed in nursery, spray  Carbendazim 50 WP @ 1 g/litre 



Pre-tillering  to mid tillering and  panicle  

initiation to  booting  


  • Bacterial blight is essentially a monsoon season  disease. 
  • The intensity of the disease is much  influenced by rainfall, cloudy, drizzling and  stormy weather and high nitrogen fertilizer. 
  • The disease is prevalent in moderate to severe form in almost all the rice-growing areas during the  monsoon season. 
  • The disease is prevalent in  coastal Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala,  Punjab,Haryana,Uttarakhand, UttarPradesh,Gujarat,Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh,Bihar,WestBengal, Orissa and Assam. 
  • Apply judicious level of  fertilization (60-80 kg N/ha with required level of potassium)without sacrificing the yield.  Apply N in 3-4 splits.  
  • Avoid field to field irrigation. 
  •  Avoid insect damage to the crop
  • Destroy infected stubbles and  weeds.  
  • Avoid shade in the field.  
  • Growresistant/tolerant varieties  like Ajaya, IR 64, Radha, Pantdhan 6, Pantdhan 10. 

Rice tungro  disease  




  • Rice Tungro disease is the most important virus  disease of rice. 
  • It has been reported from many  rice-growing areas of India. 
  • The disease is  prevalent in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, parts of  Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. 
  • Remove and destroy infected  plants and apply additional  nitrogen for early recovery.  
  •  Incorporate Phorate 10 G @ 12- 15 kg/ha or Fipronil 0.4 G @ 25  kg/ha or nursery in top 2-5 cm  layer of the soil before sowing of  sprouted seeds. 
  • If such  incorporation is not possible, 

broadcast the recommended  insecticides 4-5 days after  showing in a thin film of water  and allow this water to seep  completely.  

  • In the main crop, spray Carbaryl  50 WP @ 0.65 litre/ha or  Fipronil 5 EC @ 1 litre/ha.  
  • Growresistant/tolerant varietieslikeNidhi, Vikramarya, Radha,  Annapurna, Triveni etc. 
  • Reap the yield once the panicles are developing fully as well as the crops get changed significantly yellow.
  • The yield is generally harvested manually by sickles or by blend harvester.
  • The harvested crops, tied up into compact bundles, strike it against really hard surface to split the grains from straw, accompanied by winnowing.

Rice Root Knot Nematode

Above ground symptom

  • Stunted growth of seedlings in the nursery and main field.
  • Yellowing of foliage, chlorosis and patchiness are common symptoms. .
  • Heavily infested plants flower and mature early.
  • Reduction in the number of tillers.
  • Size of earhead and number of grains are reduced 

      Below ground symptom 

  • Characteristic tip galling or terminal galls on root.
  • Adult females and egg masses are developed inside the root.

Management :

  • Flooding of field and keeping the crop always in submerged conditions
  • Raising the rice seedlings in flooded soils.
  • Crop rotation with non-host crops such as Daincha.
  • Soil solarization with 25µ LLDP (Low Light Density Polythene) sheets for 3 weeks before preparation of fields.
  • Soaking rice seedling in carbosulfan 0.1% reduces nematode reproduction.


Cost of Cultivation :: Rice (2020-21)



Sl.No.Cost Items(Rs./ha.)
A.Operational Cost64653
I.Human Labour 
II.Bullock Labour 
III.Machine Labour 
V.Fertilizer & Manure 
VII.Irrigation Charges4688
VIII.Crop Insurance76
IX.Interest on Working Capital1735
B.Fixed Cost21418
I.Rental value of Owned land14928
II.Rental paid for leased in land164
III.Land revenue, cesses & taxes7
IV.Depreciation on Implements and Farm Buildings615
V.Interest on Fixed Capital5704
C.Total Cost86071
 Yield (qtl/ha) – Main Product45.91