Botanical name- Rosa sp.
Family - Rosaceae

  • Rose is one of the leading flowers in global floriculture.
  • It is used in almost every event.
  • Rose flowers are vary in size, shape and also available in various color (from white to red or multicolor).
  • Rose is native to Asia but some rose species are native to Europe, America and Africa.
  • Rose petals have several medicinal benefits; it is used for stress and depression relief also used to treat acne. Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh are major rose-growing states.
  • Now a day’s greenhouse farming is becoming more popular and rose farming in greenhouse is popular as it produces the high quality of flower as compared to open field cultivation.

1.Species roses

  • It also called as wild rose.
  • These types of flowers consist of five petals with bright colors.
  • They last for long time in winter.
    2.Example: Rosa rugose
  • Native of Japan.
  • These are hardy in nature.
  • Flowers are extremely scented with wrinkled leather type leaves.
  • They grow in dense, thick shrub.
  • Avoid use of chemical spray as it shed its all leaves on spraying.


  • Also known as lady bank and is native of china.
  • Flowers are small, scented and having violet color.
  • Flower comes in small clusters.


  • Scented flower with single petals.


6.Moyesh: Native of china, bears red rose.


  • Native of Asia.
  • Flowers are strongly honey scented with white color petals.

Musk, Setigera, Sempervirens, Soulieana

8.Old Garden Rose: 

  • These types of flowers are more attractive and scented.
  • Suited to warm climate and sustain well in winter.
  • These are easy to grow, disease resistant and sustain well in winter.
  • They grow in shrub also some grow like vine.
  • Flowers are colorful but white and pastel color are most popular.
  • This group consists of China roses, Tea roses, Moss Rosses, Damask roses, Bourbon Roses. Alba, Ayrshire, Gallica, Hybrid Perpetual, Portland, Ramblers, Noisette etc.

9.Alba: Light pink to white color flowers.

10.Bourbon: Light pink to deep pinkish red flowers.


  • climbing type shrub.
  • Flowers are purplish red color.


  • Also known as cabbage rose as flower are full, round.
  • They are found in color range of white to pink.


  • Flowers are found in deep pink to white shades.

14.Hybrid Perpetual:

  • Highly scented with large flowers, color ranges from pink to red.


  • Light pink to white color blossom.
  • Flowers come once in late spring.


  • Shrub like variety and flowers comes in variety of color.

17.Noisette: Scented flowers with shades of pink.

18.Modern Roses: 

  • These are most popular and obtain from cross breeding of hybrid tea and primrose.
  • Flowers are of various color, rich and vibrant. 

Example: Hybrid tea roses, Floribunda roses, yellow permet rose, Grandiflora Roses, American Pillar, Grandifloras, Albas, Landscape Rose, Centifolia rose , mini flora, Hybrid Musk and Polyantha. 

19.Hybrid tea: 

  • These are most popular among modern roses.
  • Plant grows upto 3 to 5 feet and flowers petals are double or semi double. e.g Paradise, Peace, Polarstern, Pristine etc.


  • Bush type variety having small flowers and even short stem.
  • Flowers are borne in cluster.
  • This variety contains Frisco, kiss, Florence, Jaguar, Impatient, Angel Face, Ivory Fashion.

21.Shrub Rose:

  • These belong to class of wild species.
  • They are hardy in nature and required little maintenance.
  • These are cross between special rose and bush rose.
  • Flowers come in mass and of large size and colorful but no definite form.
  • Plant grows in shrub. 

e.g : Bonica, Frau Dogmar Hartopp, Abraham Darby, Golden Wings etc.

22.Climbing rose: 

  • These types of roses are having long branches, required support.
  • Required little pruning.
  • They can grow on wall, fences etc.
  • Flowers are large. Blaze, Don Juan, Dortmund, Climbing Iceberg, Ever blooming climbers, Rambler roses, Trailling roses and large flower climbers are belong to this class.

23.Miniature Roses: 

  • Plant grows up to 2 feet height. 
  • Flowers are small, attractive with various range of color.
  • Example Rainbows End, Red Beauty, Rise N Shine.


  • Plants are tall and grows up to height of 2-3 feet.
  • This type is obtained from cross between Hybrid Teas and Floribundas.
  • Flowers are medium to large and they come in small cluster.
  • Example Aquarius, Gold Medal, Pink Parfait.

25.Standard or Tree Rose

  • Plants grow up to height of 2-3 feet.
  • Flowers are large and full size.
  • These are obtained from budding of bush type varieties.

26.Flower Carpet:  

  • Also known as Groundcover roses.
  • These are pest resistant and can sustain in hard winter.

e.g Scarlet, Amber and Pink Supreme.

Commercial Varieties: Pusa Gaurav (Pink varieties), Super Star, Montezuma, Mercedies, Pusa Priya and First  Red  (red varieties)

Exhibition varieties: First Prize, Eiffel Tower, Pusa Sonia, Red- Christian Dior, Montezuma, Super Star.

Scented varieties: Crimson Glory, La France, Sugandha

Other Varieties: Vivaldi, Sika, Arusumo, Proudland, Summer Fragerance, Gen Vaidya, Kalpana, Mother and Baby, Soller, Night N Day, American Home, Melina, Jogan, Amacia, Montreal, Grandmaster Piece, Pilgrim, MME Teresa Estabing, Golden Jubilee, Papa Pirosa, Chimson Tide, Belami, Elegant Beauty, Pampa, Madelon, Perfect Moment, Rocklea, Hebe Kuborgo, Polarstern, Fulton Mackay, Sweet Surrender, summer dream, Lapdef, Madosh, Dreaming, Pastel Delight, Godavari, Rosenrot, Fragerance Lady, Execiting, Roundalay, City kenda, Jessie Mathews, Portland Thail Blazer, Banco, Dame Décor, Mirandi, Lucy Cromphorn, Jean Gaujard, Krithika, Austin Reed, Tynwald, Leg glow, Emily Post, Alaska Centennial, Bacardy, Touch of Glass, Jayalalitha, Dolly Parton, MME Denise Galloise, Chaitra, Royal Amathyst, Chalis Gold, MME President, Ashwini, Command Performance, Agena, Alinka, Alliance, Alpha, Ariane, Bella Epoque, Bellease, Besancon, Blessings, Blue Monday, Bridal Bush, Bridal Dream, Brinessa, Cabaret, Cacico

Soil –

  • Soils rich in organic matter and well drained sandy loam soils are suitable for Rose cultivation.
  • For good growth it requires pH of 6 to 7.5.
  • It is sensitive to waterlogging so provide proper drainage and remove excess water.


The ideal climate for rose growing should have temperature with a minimum of 15°C and maximum of 28°C. 

Time of sowing

  • For Northern states, Mid – October is best time for Rose cultivation.
  • After planting, provide shade, also sprinkled water on plant if strong sunshine is observed.
  • Planting rose in late afternoon gives best results.
  • Propagation of rose is done by rooted cutting or budding on briar root stocks.
  • In Northern Plains, December – February is ideal time for budding (T budding).
  • Pruning is carried out in second year after planting and then in subsequent years.
  • In Northern plains, rose bushes are pruned in second or third week of October.
  • Remove dead, dry, diseased and damaged shoots and leaves.
  • Also removes shoots which make bush crowded.
  • Climbing roses do not required pruning.
  • After pruning, add 7-8 kg of well rotten cow dung per bush and mix well is soil.

Seed Rate
In green house, rose are planted in 2 rows and density should be 7-14 plants/m2.

  • To bring soil to fine tilth, carry out ploughing and hoeing operations.
  • Prepare bed for cultivation, 4-6 weeks before planting.
  • While preparing bed for rose cultivation, add 2 tonnes of well decomposed cow dung and 2 kg of Super Phosphate in soil.
  • Then carry out leveling operation for uniform bed formation.
  • Growing rose on bed is more profitable than growing individually in pit.

Nutrient Requirement (gm/plant)

  • At time of bed preparation, add 2ton of well decomposed cow dung and 2kg of Super Phosphate in soil.
  • At interval of three months apply well decomposed cow dung @10kg and N:P:K@8:8:16gm per plant.
  • Apply fertilizer after completing pruning.
  • To increased flower production, one month after pruning, take spray of GA3@200ppm (0.2gm/Ltr) at early vegetative stage.
  • To improve stress tolerance take spray of soluble root stimulant (RalliGold/Rizom)@100 gm +Teeepol @ 60 ml in 100Ltr water per acre at evening time after irrigation.

To control monocot weeds, use Glyphosate@300 g/acre and for dicot weeds, apply Oxyfluorfen@200 g/acre as pre-emergent treatment.

  • Plant gets established and get well settle in field.
  • Irrigation frequency varies according to soil type and climate.
  • Modern irrigation technique like drip irrigation is useful for rose cultivation.
  • Avoid sprinkler irrigation as chances of infection of leaf disease increases.
  • The best time of pruning is the period when the activity of rose plant is least and the plant is dormant to near dormant stage.

  • Pruning time will depend on climatic conditions of the particular region.

  • The vigorous past season shoots are cut back to half the length.

  • All the weak, diseased, criss-crossing and unproductive shoots are removed.

  • The cut ends should be protected with Bordeaux or Fytolan paste + Carbaryl 50 WP.

  • Cut back the vigorous past season shoots to half the length during October to December.

  • All the weak, diseased, criss-crossing and unproductive shoots are removed.

  • The cut ends should be protected with Bordeaux paste or Copper Oxychloride + Carbaryl 50 WP.

Spray 250ppm of GA3 (30 days after pruning) during early vegetative stage to increase the flower production.

1.Rose aphid: Macrosiphum rosaeformis D.

Rose Aphids Photograph by Dr Keith Wheeler/science Photo Library

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults are found in clusters on the tender shoots, flowers and buds and suck the sap.
  • Withering of tender shoots
  • Buds fall off prematurely and the flowers show fading.


  • Spray methyl demeton 1ml / lit (or) methyl parathion 2ml/lit or neem oil 0.5%

2. Thrips: Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus

Thrips - Barmac Pty Ltd

Symptoms of damage

  • Suck the oozed out sap.
  • Silvering or white streaks appear on the infested leaves.
  • Leaves show brown patches and get distorted, finally wither and drop down.
  • Infested flowers do not open; flowers fade and fall off down prematurely.


  • Spray methyl demeton 2ml (or) phosalone 2ml / lit (or) neem oil 3%

3.Scale: Lindingaspis rossi

Rose scale (Aulacaspis rosae)

Symptoms of damage

  • Scales completely cover the stem.
  • Affected portion of the plant dries up.
  • In server infestation, the whole plant may die.


  • Rub off the scales with cotton soaked in Kerosene or Diesel.
  • Spray malathion 2ml /lit. at the time of pruning
  • Apply carbofuran 5g/ plant (or) spray fish oil resin soap 25g/lit.

4.Red spider mite: Tetranychus cinnabarinusT. urticae

Spider mites: defences for protected and outdoor ornamentals against ...

Symptoms of damage

  • Feed on the undersurface of leaves and are found covered with silken webs.
  • Yellow spots appear on the upper surface and leaves turn reddish due to feeding.
  • Affected leaves finally wither.
  • Growth and flower production are adversely affected.


  • Spray dicofol 2 ml (or) wettable sulphur 2g/lit.

5.Leaf cutter bee: Megachile anthracina

22 Potential Rose Pests and Problems

Symptoms of damage

  • Leaf cutter bees cause characteristic damage to the rose leaves
  • Cutting neat circular or oval patches from the leaf margins.
  • Cut bits of leaves – used for the construction nest cells.


  • Insecticides are ineffective for preventing leaf cutting.
  • Cover susceptible plants with cheesecloth or loose netting for preventing leaf injury damage
  • Breeding sites should be eliminated
  • Rotting wooden boards with sawdust pushed out of excavated tunnels

6.Castor semilooper: Achaea janata L.  

Achaea Janata - Castor Semi-looper - Farmonaut

Symptoms of damage

  • Caterpillars feed voraciously on the foliage.


  • Hand pick grown up larvae and destroy.
  • Spray methyl parathion 1ml / lit of water.

7.Slug caterpillar: Parasa (Latoia) lepida 

Stinging Rose Slug Caterpillar - Stock Image - Z355/1232 - Science ...

Symptom of damage

  • Defoliation


  • Collect the infested leaves along with caterpillars and destroy. 

8.Gram caterpillar: Helicoverpa armigera Hub.  

caterpillar on a Rose Photograph by Gerald Kloss

Symptoms of damage

  • Young larva bores into bud and eats the internal content.
  • Feed by thrusting the head inside the bud leaving the rest of its body outside.
  • Flowers with perforated petals are seen.


  • Hand picking of caterpillars.
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 2ml/lit of water.

9.Flower Chaffer beetle: Oxycetonia versicolor 

Rose Chafer

Symptoms of damage

  • The beetles feed on buds and flower
  • Result in irregular feeding marks.


  • Hand picking of beetles.
  • Treat the soil around the trunk with carbaryl 10% Dust @ 30 g/plant
  • Spray methyl parathion 50 EC or malathion 50 EC at 2 ml/l of water

10.Termite (White ants): Odontotermes obesus  

Termite Awareness Week 2018 - Rose Pest Solutions

Symptoms of damage

  • Feed on the roots of young and old plants.
  • Attacked plants wither, dry and ultimately die.


  • Mix lindane (or) carbaryl dust with soil.
  • Drench the soil with chlorpyriphos or lindane 2ml/lit of water.

11.Blackfly: Aleurocanthus spiniferus

Black Fly - Blackfly and How to Get rid of Them | Gardenseeker.Garden

Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves
  • Crinkling of leaves.
  • Black oval puparia are seen on the under surface of the leaves.


  • Spray Fish Oil Resin Soap 25g/lit (or) Neem oil 0.5% (or) Methyl demeton 2ml/lit of water.


Rose Health Problems

Deficiency Symptoms
  • The deficiency of P causes complete cessation of elongation,
  • older leaves becoming irregularly necrotic and marginal chlorosis and premature death are caused. 
  • P deficiency causes a blue or dark green coloration of leaves.
Correction Measure

Application of super phosphate was very effective to control the deficiency.



Deficiency Symptoms

Symptom first visible on older leaves as marginal chlorosis and become necrotic drying form tip towards base.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray K2SO4 1% at fortnightly intervals.


Magnesium deficiency in rose leaf - Stock Image - C006/5351 - Science ...

Deficiency Symptoms

Symptoms seen in old leaves; occurrence of interveinal chlorosis

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MgSO4@1%

1.Black spot: Diplocarbon rosae


  • Black lesions with feathery margins surrounded by yellow tissue are found on the leaves.
  • Infected leaves drop prematurely.
  • Plants may be weakened due to defoliation and reduced flower production may be observed.


  • Cultural- Roses should be planted where the sun can quickly dry the night’s dew.
  • Space roses far enough apart for good air circulation
  • Avoid overhead watering and keep foliage as dry as possible.
  • Remove infected canes and burn diseased leaves.

2.Powdery mildew: Sphaerotheca pannosa



  • Grayish-white powdery substance on the surfaces of young leaves, shoots and buds.
  • Infected leaves may be distorted, and some leaf drop may occur.
  • Flower buds may fail to open, and those that do may produce poor-quality flowers.
  • It is most severe in shady areas and during cooler periods


  • Collection and burning of fallen leaves.
  • Spray with Wettable sulphur 0.3% (or) Carbendazim 0.1% 2-3 sprays at 15 days interval is effective.
  • Sulphur dust at 25 kg/ha.
  • Use of sulphur at higher temperature conditions will be phytotoxic.
3.Die back: Diplodia rosarum


  • Drying of twigs from tip down wards.
  • Blackening of the twigs.
  • The disease spreads to root and causes complete killing of the plants


  • Pruning should be done so that lesions on the young shoots will be eliminated.
  • Apply chaubatia paste in the pruned area

4.Rust: Phragmidum mucronatum


  • Lemon yellow pustules appear on lower surface of the leaves and stems. 
  • The affected leaves turn yellow deformed and fall prematurely.
  • Die back symptom also appear due to weakening of the plant.


  • Collection and burning of fallen leaves
  • Spray with Wettable sulphur 0.25%
The plants will start flowering in the first year and will give economic yield from the second year onwards.
  • Flowering will commence 45 days after pruning.
  • Fully opened flowers are picked early in the morning.
  • Economical yield from rose is obtained from second year onwards.
  • Harvesting is done with sharp hand pruners, when colour of flower is fully developed and first one or two petals start to unfold but not fully open.
  • Flowers along with prescribed length are cut with hand pruner.
  • According to foreign market standard, for large flower, length of stem varies from 60-90cm and for small flower 40-50cm.
  • Harvesting is to be done early in morning or late in afternoon.
  • After harvesting keep, roses in plastic buckets/container, filled with fresh water having disinfectant and preservative.
  • Then keep flowers in pre-cooling chamber having temperature of 10oC for 12hours.
  • After then flowers are graded on the basis of stem length, quality etc. 

7.5 t/ha/year.

Crop growing districts                                   Krishnagiri,Madurai,Dindigul
Major markets in Tamil Nadu                      Dindigul, Madurai, Chennai
Preferred varieties and hybrids                  Edward rose, Andra Red rose and Button rose