Soyabean
Botanical Name - Glycine max spp.
Family - Leguminosae 

  • Soybean called as golden beans is belongs to legume family.
  • It is native of East Asia.
  • It is a rich source of Protein also excellent source of fibre..
  • Soybean is a high value crop with multiple food, feed and industrial uses. Edible oil,  soymilk and its products, bakery products, antibiotics and fresh green beans are some of  its major uses.
  • Oil extracted from soybean contain small amount of saturated fat. In Punjab, it plays an important role in crop diversification
  • Soybean has a potential to play an important role in crop diversification in  the state.
  • Temperature – 18-38°C
  • Rainfall – 18-38°C
  • Sowing Temperature – 25-38°
  • Harvesting Temperature -18-25°C
 
  • It gives good result, when grown on well drained, fertile loamy soils.
  • Soil pH of 6 to 7.5 is favourable for optimum yield of soybean.
  • Water logged, saline/alkaline soils are not suitable for its cultivation.
  • Low temperature affect crop severely.
states variety
Alankar, Ankur, Bragg, Lee, PK 262, PK 308, PK 327, PK 416, PK 472, PK 564, Pant Soybean 1024, Pant Soybean 1042, Pusa 16, Pusa 20, Pusa 22, Pusa 24, Pusa 37, Shilajeet, VL soya 2, VL soya 47, MAUS-158, NRC-77, MACS-1188, JS-20-29, JS-20-34, Dsb-21, NRC-86 (ahilya-6), KPS-344, Raj Soya-24
 
1.SL 958 (2014):
  • It has shining, light yellow  coloured grains with black hilum.
  • Its’ grains contain  41.7% protein and 20.2% oil.
  • It is highly resistant  to yellow mosaic virus and soybean mosaic virus.
  • It takes about 142 days to mature. Its’ average seed yield is about 7.3 quintals per acre.

2. SL 744 (2010):

  • It has shining, light yellow coloured grains with grey hilum.
  • Its’ grains  contain 42.3% protein and 21.0% oil.
  • It is resistant to yellow mosaic virus and soybean  mosaic.
  • It takes about 139 days to mature.
  • Its’ average seed yield is about 7.3 quintals per  acre.

3.SL 525 (2003):

  • It has uniformly bold, shining, cream coloured grains with light black (grey) hilum. Its’ grains contain 37.2% protein and 21.9% oil.
  • It is resistant to yellow mosaic  virus and tolerates stem blight and root-knot nematode.
  • It matures in about 144 days.
  • Its’  average seed yield is about 6.1 quintals per acre.

 

 
  • Soybean can also be sown with zero till drill without any preparatory  tillage
  • Give two ploughings to the field, followed by plankings to free it from clods and bring it into good tilth to ensure good germination. .
  • Prepared field by giving two to three ploughings followed by planking.
Time of sowing
First fortnight of June is best time for sowing Soybean.
 
Spacing
While sowing use row to row spacing of 45 cm and plant to plant spacing of 4-7 cm.
 
Sowing Depth
Sow seeds at depth of 2.5-5 cm.
 

Raised Bed Sowing:

  • Sowing of soybean in medium to heavy textured soils should be done on beds spaced 67.5 cm apart (37.5 bed top, 30 cm furrow) by using wheat bed  planter.
  • Sow two rows per bed using same quantity of seed, fertilizer and following other  cultivation practices as in flat sown soybean.
  • Irrigation should be applied in furrows by  taking care that beds are not inundated.
  • This practice not only saves the crop from damage  by rains especially at emergence, but also saves about 20-30% irrigation water along with  increased yield over conventional flat sowing method.
  • Ensure good moisture conditions  while sowing and in case it is not so, apply irrigation in furrows within 2-3 days after sowing  for optimum germination and emergence. 
Method of sowing
Sow seeds with help of seed drill.

To get higher yield apply organic manures, bio-fertilizers along with chemical fertilizers  as under:

Organic Manures:

  • Apply 4 tonnes of FYM per acre before sowing.
  • Alternatively  green manure the field with sunhemp using 20 kg seed per acre during second fortnight  of April.
  • Green manure crop should be buried when about 40-45 days old and allowed to  decompose for about 5-7 days before sowing of soybean.
  • Practice green manuring and  apply full dose of nitrogen (13 kg N/acre) to get high yield of soybean in soybean-wheat  system.
  • The practice of green manuring also improves the soil health.

Bio-fertilizers: Inoculate the seed with recommended bio-fertilizer before sowing.   

Chemical Fertilizer:

  • Apply at sowing 12.5 kg of N (28 kg of Urea) and 32 kg  P2O5 (200 kg of single superphosphate).
  • However, apply only 24 kg of P2O5 (150 kg of  single superphosphate) per acre to soybean when it follows wheat which had received  recommended dose of phosphorus. 
  • In phosphorus and sulphur deficient soils, apply sulphated P fertilizer  (13:33:0:15:N:P2O5:K2O:S) if other phosphatic (DAP or single superphosphatic) and  gypsum fertilizers are not available.
Seed Rate
Use seed rate of 25-30 kg for sowing in one acre land.
 
Seed Treatment
To protect seeds from soil borne diseases, treat seeds with Thiram or Captan@3 gm per kg of seeds.
  • To keep field weed free, two hoeing are required, give first hoeing 20 days after sowing and second hoeing 40 days after sowing.
  • To control weed chemically, after sowing, within two days, take spray of Pendimethalin@800 ml/acre in 100-200 ltrs of water.
 
 

Disease and their control:

1.Yellow mosaic virus: 

Symptoms-

  • It is spread due to white fly. Irregular yellow, green patches are observed on leaves.
  • Pods not developed on infected plants.

Management-

  • Grow yellow mosaic virus resistant varieties.
  • For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm, Triazophos@ 400 ml/acre.
  • If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray. 

2.Alternaria leaf spotAlternaria tenuissima

Symptom
  • Seed become small and shriveled. Dark, irregular, spreading sunken areas occur on the seed.
  • Appearance of brown, necrotic spots with concentric rings on foliage, which coalesce and form large necrotic areas.
  • Infected leaves later in the season dry out and drop prematurely.

Management

  • Use healthy/certified seeds
  • Destroy crop residues from fields.
  • Seed treatment with thiram + carbendazium (2:1) @ 3g/kg seed.
  • Use Mancozeb or copper fungicide at 2.5g/l or carbendazim 1 g/lit

3.Anthracnose/pod blightColletotrichum truncatum

Symptom
  • Infected seeds become shriveled, mouldy and brown.
  • Symptoms on cotyledons appear as dark brown sunken cankers.
  • In early stage, irregular brown lesions appear on leaves, stems and pods.
  • Under high humidity, symptoms on leaves are veinal necrosis, leaf rolling, cankers on petioles premature defoliation

Management

  • Use healthy or certified seeds.
  • Destroy last years infected stubble.
  • Maintain well drained field.
  • Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan or Carbendazim 3 g/kg and
  • Use Mancozeb @ 2.5g/l as spray or Carbendazim 1g/L.

4.Bacterial blightPseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea

Symptom
 
  • Small, angular, translucent, water-soaked, yellow to light brown spots appear on leaves.
  • Young leaves are most infected and are destroyed, stunted and chlorotic.
  • Angular lesions enlarge and merge to produce large, irregular dead areas.
  • Early defoliation of lower leaves may occur.
  • Large, black lesions develop on stems and petioles.

Management

  • Deep summer poughing.
  • Use healthy/certified seeds.
  • Seed treatment with streptocyclin @ 250 ppm (2.5 g/10 kg seeds).
  • Application of any copper fungicides @ 2 g/lit along with streptocyclin at the rate of 250 ppm (2.5 g/10 lit water).

5.Cercospora leaf blight, leaf spot and Purple seed stainCercospora kikuchii

Symptom
  • Infected leaves appear leathery, dark, reddish purple.
  • Severe infection cause rapid chlorosis and necrosis of leaf tissues, resulting in defoliation.
  • Lesions on petioles and stems are slightly sunken, reddish purple; severe cause defoliation.
  • Later, blighting of young, upper leaves over large areas, even entire fields occur.

Management

  • Use healthy/certified seeds.
  • Previous crop debris should be removed.
  • Seed treatment with Thiram + Carbendazium (2:1) @ 3g/kg seed.
  • Use Mancozeb or copper oxychloride at 2.5g/l or Carbendazim 1 g/lit

6.Frog eye leaf spotCercospora sojina

Symptom
 
  • The disease primarily affect foliage, but, stems, pods and seeds may also be infected.
  • The leaf spot may coalesce to form larger spots.
  • When lesions are numerous the leaves wither and drop prematurely.
  • Lesions on pods are circular to elongate, light sunken and reddish brown.

Management

  • Use healthy or certified seeds.
  • Rotate soybean with cereals.
  • Seed treatment with Thiram + Carbendazim (2:1) @ 3g/kg seed.
  • Spray Mancozeb @ 2.5g/lit or Carbendazim 1g/lit.  

7.Charcoal rot, ashy or stem blight or dry root rotMacrophomina phaseolina

Symptom
 
  • It is a most common basal stem and root disease of the soybean plant.
  • Lower leaves become chlorotic and wilting and drying is apparent.
  • The diseased tissues generally develop grayish  discolouration.
  • Blacking and cracking of roots is the most common symptom.
  • The fungus survives in soil and crop debris in dry conditions.
  • Dry conditions, low soil moisture and nutrient and temperature range from 25o C to 35o C are favorable for the disease.

Management

  • Deep ploughing in summer.
  • Ensure balanced fertilization of the crop.
  • Destroy last years infected stubble.
  • Seed treatment with T. viride @4g/kg or P. fluorescens @ 10g/ kg of seed or Carbendazim or Thiram 2g/kg of seed.
  • Spot drenching with Carbendazim 1g/lit or P. fluorescens / T. viride 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg FYM
  • Overall crop required three to four irrigation.
  • Irrigation at time of pod filling stage is necessary.
  • Water stress at this period will affect yield drastically.
  • Apply irrigation depending upon rainfall conditions.
  • No irrigation required in good rainfall conditions.

1.Iron deficiency:

Iron

Symptoms-

Iron deficiency symptoms in soybean appear at first-to third-trifoliate  leaf stage showing distinctive yellow leaves with green veins.  

Management-

For obtaining higher yields and ameliorate iron deficiency, spray ferrous sulphate  (0.5%; 1 kg in 200 litres of water) at 30 days and mixed foliar application of ferrous sulphate  (0.5%) and urea (2%; 4 kg in 200 litres of water per acre) at 60 days after sowing. 

2.Nitrogen

Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Growth will be stunted and leaves a very pale green.
  • Nitrogen deficiency occurs because the soybean roots are not nodulated or nodules are not effective because of poor soil fertility or low levels of Mo.

Correction Measure :

  • Foliar spray Urea 1% at fortnightly interval

3.Potassium

Potassium

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Deficiency in early growth stages shows up as irregular mottling around the edges of leaves.
  • As deficiency becomes more severe, chlorosis progresses toward the center of the leaf.
  • In early growth, necrosis may be on lower leaves but later in the season it may be on leaves in the upper parts of the plant.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of KCl 1% at fortnightly interval

4.Sulphur

Identifying Nurtrient Deficiency Symptoms in Soybeans

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Deficient plants become chlorotic.
  • New leaves are first affected, but gradually the entire plant becomes uniformly chlorotic.

Correction Measure

Foliar spraying of Calsium Sulphate 0.5-1.0 % can control the deficiency.

5.Boron

Boron

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Leaf turns yellow colour.
  • Leaf tip and borders dried.
  • Paled leaves turns dried and fell down.
  • Pods are less in number and maturity delays.

Correction Measure

  • Spraying of foliar application of Borax @ 3 g/Litre twice at 10 days interval.
  • Application of Borax @ 5g/ha

6.Manganese

Manganese

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Leaves become chlorotic in interveinal areas while the veins remain green. 
  • Whole leaves, veins excepted, become pale green and pale yellow.
  • Brown spots and necrotic areas develop on lower leaves as the deficiency becomes more severe.
  • Deficiency occurs on the new leaves, however, when later growth is normal the chlorotic leaves are no longer at top of the plant.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of MnSO4 @ 0.5% at fortnightly intervals or soil application of MnSO4 @ 20 to 25 kg/ha

7.Zinc

Zinc

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Zinc deficiency of soybeans is not common.
  • The leaves become chlorotic, then rusty brown in color.
  • The veins remain green.
  • The chlorosis is uniform over the leaf and not concentrated initially on the edges as occurs with deficiencies such as K.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of ZnSO4 1% at fortnightly intervals or soil application of ZnSO4 20 to 25 kg/ha

Pest and their control:

1.White Fly: 

  • For white fly control, take spray of Thiamethoxam@40 gm or Triazophos@300 ml/acre.
  • If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.

2.Tobacco caterpillar: 

  • If infestation is observed, take spray of Acephate 57 SP @800 gm/acre or Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 1.5 ltr/acre.
  • If necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.

3.Hairy Caterpillar:

Management-

  • To control hairy caterpillar pick caterpillar manually and destroyed by crushing or putting in kerosene water when infestation is low.
  • In case of high infestation, take spray of Quinalphos@300 ml or Dichlorvos@200 ml/acre.

4.Blister beetle:

Symptoms-

  • They cause damage at flowering stage.
  • They feed on flowers, buds thus prevent grain formation.
  • Management-
  • If infestation is observed, take spray of Indoxacarb 14.5SC@200 ml or Acephate 75SC@800 gm/acre.
  • Carry out spraying in evening hours and if necessary take second spray 10 days after first spray.     

5.Gram pod borer: Helicoverpa armigera

Soybean | Infonet Biovision Home.

Symptoms of damage

  • The young larvae feeds on the chlorophyll of young leaves and skeletonize it.
  • They feed voraciously on the foliage in early stage, may defoliate the plant and later they feed on flowers and pods.

Management

  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Install pheromone traps @ distance of 50 m @ 5 traps/ha for insect pest.
  • Erect bird perches @ 50/ha..
  • Setting of light traps (1 light trap/5 acre) to kill moth population
  • Dusting with Chlorpyriphos 1.5 % DP or fenvalerate 0.4% or quinolphos 1.5% @ 25 to 30 kg/ha

6.Thrips: Thrips tabaci  

Bean Thrips in Soybeans | Mid-Coast IPM    Soybean thrips

Symptoms of damage    

  • The infected leaf turns whitish-brown in colour.
  • In case of heavy infestation the leaves get dry and drop down and slowly the plant becomes leafless.  

Management

  • Dusting  of cow dung ash and spraying of  clay suspension as asphyxiants (in small area and low incidence of sucking insects)  
  • Spray 0.05 % quinalphos 25 EC, or oxydemeton methyl 25 EC, or dimethoate 30 EC @ 2ml /lit at the crop age of 35-40 days and repeat after 15 days if needed

7.Soybean Aphid : Aphis spp.

Soybean Aphid in North Carolina? | NC State Extension

Symptoms of damage

  • They suck the plant sap from the stem, leaves and pods which cause reduction in yield.
  • The infested leaves are wilted or curled.
  • Plant stunting, reduced pod and seed counts, puckering and yellowing of leaves.

Management

  • Dusting  of cowdung ash and spraying of  clay suspension  asphyxiants (low incidence of sucking insects)  
  • Spray 0.05 % quinalphos 25 EC, oxydemeton methyl 25 EC, or dimethoate 30 EC @ 2ml /lit at the crop age of 35-40 days and repeat after 15 days if needed

8.Girdle beetle: Oberea (Obereopsis) brevis

Soybean Girdle Beetle | Pests & Diseases    कृषी ज्ञान - Control of Girdle Beetle in Soybean - अ‍ॅग्रोस्टार

Symptoms of damage

  • Girdling of  stems and petioles
  • The inside of the stem is eaten by the larvae and a tunnel is formed inside the stem.
  • The leaves of plant of infected portion are unable to get the nutrient and are dried up.
  • In later stages the plant is cut at about 15 to 25 cm above the ground.

Management

  • Deep summer ploughing
  • Planting time on the onset of monsoon
  • Optimum seed rate (70-100 kg/ha) should be used
  • Apply phorate 10 G @ 10 kg/ha or carbofuran 3 G @ 30 kg/ha at the time of sowing.
  • One or two sprays of 0.03% dimethoate 30 EC or 0.05% quinalphos 25 EC or 0.05% methyl demeton 25 EC or 0.04% can check further damage.  
  • Pods become dry and leaves changes their color to yellow and fall of, it is sign of crop is ready for harvesting.
  • Harvest the crop with sickle or by hand. After harvesting, carry out threshing operation.
After drying, carry out proper cleaning of seeds. Remove small size seeds, damaged seeds and crop stalks.