Sweet Orange
Botanical Name -Citrus sinensis
Family - Rutaceae

  • Orange is widely grown citrus fruit of India.
  • It occupies nearly 50% of total area under citrus cultivation.
  • Mandarin, Sweet Orange is commercially grown citrus species in India.
  • Production of Mandarin orange is increasing every year in central and western parts of country.
  • India ranks third in the production of orange after banana and mango fruits.
  • In India, Orange is being grown in Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.

1) Khasi :

  • Locally known as Sikkim.
  • It is commercially grown in the states of Assam and Meghalaya.
  • Medium to large sized trees, dense foliage with thorns.
  • Orange-yellow to bright orange color fruits with smooth surface.
  • Orange color fruits with 9-25 seeds.

2) Kinnow : 

  • It is a hybrid variety between King and Willow leaf.
  • Plants are large sized, symmetrical with dense foliage, broad leaves.
  • Fruits are medium in size, deep orange yellow colored on ripening, and adherent juicy fruit with 12-24 seeds.
  • Fruit matures in the months of January-February.
  • This variety when first introduced into Punjab performed very well and gained high commercial significance.

3) Coorg: 

  • Trees are up righted, vigorous having compact foliage.
  • Fruits are bright orange in color, medium to large size, easily peeled with 9-11 segments.
  • The variety contains abundant juice with 15-25 seeds.
  • The variety matures in February-March months.

4) Nagpur: 

  • Nagpur is also known as Ponkan.
  • Plant growth is vigorous with compact foliage.
  • Medium sized fruits, loosely adherent segments 10-12, and abundant juice with 7-8 seeds.
  • It is one of the most popular and finest orange varieties grown in the world.
  • It matures in January-February months.

Other states Varieties:

Kara (Abohar)
Seedless 182

Soil –

  • Deep well drained loamy soils are the best for the cultivation of Citrus.
  • pH of soil should be 6.5 to 7.5 and EC of water less than 1.0. A dry climate  about 50 – 75 cm .

Climate – 

  • It’s grown commercially in tropical, subtropical, arid-irrigated and mountains regions in varying soil and weather conditions.
  • Although sweet orange tree does well in dry climate, with rainfall between 750-1250 mm

In Punjab planting is done in spring season (February to March) and Monsoon season (15 August to October end).

Orange can be propagated either by Seed or By Budding.

Seed Propagation
Fruits from healthy plants with high density are selected for extracting seeds. Seeds should be mixed with ash and are left in the shade to dry.

  • To prevent seed viability, they should be sown immediately at a distance of 3-4cm.
  • Germination may take 3-4 weeks.
  • Unhealthy seedlings should be removed from the field.
  • Proper care must be taken to protect the seedlings from various diseases and insect-pests.
  • Budding

Illustration of T-budding procedures and lopping. | Download Scientific  Diagram

  • Sow citrus seeds in nursery on bed of 2mx1m size and with 15cm distance between the rows.
  • When seedlings are of 10-12cm height, transplanting is to be done.
  • Select healthy and uniform size seedling for transplantation purpose.
  • Remove dwarf and weak seedlings. If needed, pruned roots slightly before planting.
  • In nursery, Budding is done when plant are of pencil thickness.
  • Shield budding or T shape budding is done for that, T shaped slot is made in bark of tree at distance of 15-20cm from ground.
  • Horizontal cut of about 1.5-2cm long is given, and vertical cut of 2.5cm long is made from middle of horizontal cut.
  • Remove bud from bud stick and insert it into T shape slots, afterward wrapped it with plastic paper. 
  • T budding is done during February-March and also in August- September. Propagation in sweet orange, kinnow, grape fruit is done by T budding while For lime and Lemon, it is propagated by Air layering method.
  • Land need to be prepare properly for growing seedlings.
  • Land should be ploughed, cross ploughed and leveled.
  • Terrace planting is done on hills.
  • High density planting is possible in hilly areas.


  • For sweet oranges use spacing of 5mx5m is recommended.
  • Dig pit of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m, kept open in sun for some days.
  • Add 15-20 kg of well decomposed cow dung, SSP@500gm per Pit.

Pits of size 60×60×60cm should be dug for planting seedlings.

Fertilizer requirement (gm/tree)

Age of crop (Year)Urea SSP
First to three year240-720
Four to Seven960-16801375-2400
Eight and above19202750

Nutrient requirement (gm/tree)

Age of crop (Year) NitrogenPhosphorus
First to three year110-130
Four to Seven440-770220-385
Eight and above8802750

For Orange crop: 

  • For 1-3 year old crop, apply well decomposed cowdung @10-30kg, Urea @ 240-720 gm per tree.
  • For 4-7 year old crop, apply well decomposed cow dung @ 40-80kg, Urea @ 960-1680 gm and SSP@ 1375-2400 gm per tree.
  • For eight years and above crop, apply cowdung @100 kg, Urea @1920 gm and SSP @ 2750gm per Tree. 
  • Apply whole amount of cow dung during December month whereas apply Urea in two parts, apply first of Urea in February, and second dose in April-May month.
  • At time of applying first dose of Urea, apply whole dose of SSP fertilizer.
  • If fruit drop is observed, to control excessive fruit drop, take spray of 2,4-D@10gm in 500Ltr of water.
  • Take first spray in March end, then in April end. Repeat the spray in August and September end.
  • If cotton is planted in nearby field of citrus, avoid spraying of 2, 4-D, instead take spray of GA3.

Weed can be controlled by hand-hoeing and also controlled by chemically, use glyphosate@1.6litre per 150 litre of water. Use glyphosate only on weeds not on crop plants.

  • Irrigation requirement of orange is very high due to its evergreen nature throughout the year.
  • Amount of irrigation also depends upon the type of soil.
  • Proper irrigation should be provided at the time of flowering, Fruit set and Fruit development.
  • Water logging should be avoided.
  • Irrigation water should be free from salts.

Legumes and vegetable crops can be raised during pre-bearing age.

  • To increase fruit set, spray 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm (200 mg / 10 l) during
  • For fruit retention, spray 2, 4 – D @ 20 ppm or NAA 30 ppm (300 mg / l) after fruit
    set (marble size).



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Dull green, yellowish, smaller leaves.
  • Die back of twigs, thin and bushy appearance of tops with sparse bloom. Vein chlorosis.
  • New leaves are greater than older.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray urea 2% at 15 days interval



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Slower growth, shedding of leaves at blossom tine.
  • New shoots poorly attached to twig.
  • Smaller leaves, twigs die peak, scorching of leaf tips, small brown resinous spots on leaf.
  • Small wrinkled spotted leaves. Small fruits, thin peel.
  • In mandarin – yellowing and bronzing of leaves become twisted, wrinkled and spindy twigs.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of KNO3 2% at fortnightly interval. Application of 200g N, 100g P2O5 and 200g K2O / tree/year.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Premature wilting, water soaked spots on leaves.
  • Premature shedding of leaves, bushing appearance curling of leaves, splitting and curling of veins.
  • Fruits with gum spots and lumpings, hand abnormal shape and small. 
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of borax@0.5%



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Reduced growth and dark green colour of leaves, twin led malformed leaves.
  • New leaves shriveled, bushy growth. 
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of CuSO4 each 0.5% at fortnightly interval.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Thin leaves with interveinal chlorosis in young leaves.
  • Greein tinge at the base of mid rib. Leaf size reduced.
  • Later the leaves become pale or whitish and shed.
  • Die back symptom older leaves remain green, fruits hand, coarse light coloured.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of FeSO4 @ 0.5% twice at fortnight interval.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Fine network of green veins as a light green background on young leaves.
  • Leaf remains fairly green.
  • Dark green irregular bands on mature leaves, along the midrib.
  • White spots develop in interveinal area with die back symptom.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray of 0.5% MnSO4 at fortnightly interva

7. Zinc


Deficiency Symptoms
  • Irregular and chlorite leaf spots, mottled leaf, small leaves, severe dieback of twigs.
  • The area near midrib and lateral veins remain green.
  • Terminal twigs with narrow small erect leaves. Small, thin skinned fruits.
Correction Measure

Foliar spray 2% ZnSO4 with 1% lime at fortnightly interval

1.Gummosis : Phytophthora parasitica, P. palmivora,P. citrophthora

Gummosis in Fruit Trees - Backbone Valley Nursery


  • First symptoms are dark staining of bark which progresses into the wood.
  • Bark at the base is destroyed resulting in girdling and finally death of the tree.
  • Bark in such parts dries, shrinks and cracks and shreds in lengthwise vertical strips.
  • Later profuse exudation of gum from the bark of the trunk.


  • Injuries to crown roots or base of stem during cultural operations should be  avoided.
  • If lesion has girdled less than ½ the girth, remove the diseased bark with a knife along with ½” of uninvaded bark.
  • Bark of trunk should be coated with Bordeaux paste

2.Scab/Verucosis : Elsinoe fawcetti


  • Attacks leaves, twigs and fruits of mandarin.
  • Sour orange, lemon, mandarin, tangelos extremely susceptible Grapefruit, sweet oranges and acid lime highly resistant. Severe in rainy seasons.
  • On the leaves the disease starts as small pale orange coloured spots.
  • The leaf tissue is distorted to firm hollow conical growths with the lesion at the apex.


  • Spray Carbendazim 0.1

3.Canker: Xanthomonas campestris pv citri


  • Acid lime, lemon and grapefruit are affected. Rare on sweet oranges and mandarins.
  • Affects leaf, twig and fruits. In canker, leaves are not distorted.
  • Lesions are typically circular with yellow halo; appear on both sides of leaf, severe in acid lime (difference from scab) When lesions are produced on twigs, they are girdled and die.
  • On fruits, canker lesions reduce market value.


  • Streptomycin sulphate 500-1000 ppm; or Phytomycin 2500 ppm or Copper oxychloride 0.2% at fortnight intervals.
  • Control leaf miner when young flush is produced.
  • Prune badly infected twigs before the onset of monsoon

4.Tristeza or quick decline: Citrus tristeza virus (CTV)


  • Lime is susceptible both as seedling or buddling on any root stock.
  • But mandarin and sweet orange seedlings or on rough lemon, trifoliate orange, citrange; Rangpur lime root stocks tolerant; susceptible root stocks are grapefruit       and sour orange.
  • In sweet orange or mandarin on susceptible root stocks, leaves develop deficiency symptoms and absise.
  • Roots decay, twigs die back. Fruit set diminishes; only skeleton remains.


  • For sweet orange and mandarin, avoid susceptible root stocks.
  • For acid lime, use seedling preimmunised with mild strain of tristeza.

4.Greening : Liberobactor asiaticum ( Phloem limited bacteria)


  • This disease affects almost all citrus varieties irrespective of root stock.
  • Stunting of leaf, sparse foliation, twig die back, poor crop of predominantly greened, worthless fruits.
  • Sometimes only a portion of tree is affected.A diversity of foliar chlorosis.
  • A type of mottling resembling zinc deficiency often predominates.
  • Young leaves appear normal but soon assume on outright position, become leathery and develop prominant veins and dull olive green colour. Green circular dots on leaves.
  • Many twigs become upright and produce smaller leaves.
  • Infected budwood; psyllid vector-Diaphorina citri


  • Control psyllids with insecticides.
  • Use pathogen free bud wood for propagation.
  • 500 ppm tetracycline spray, requires fortnightly application

1) Citrus Psylla :

Citrus Psylla Disease on Lemon Tree Leaf Stock Photo - Image of ...


  • These are Juice sucking pests.
  • Damage is mainly caused by Nymphs.
  • It injects a plant toxin liquid which burns foliage and skin of fruit.
  • Leaves curl and fall off prematurely.


  • It can be controlled by pruning of diseased plants, burning them.
  • Spraying of Monocrotophos-0.025% or carbaryl- 0.1% can also be helpful.

2) Leaf miner :

Citrus leafminer | Bugs For Bugs


  • Larvae inside the upper or lower surface of young and newly emerged leaves are curled and look distorted.
  • Young trees show a reduction in growth due to leaf miner.


  • Best management for leaf miner is to leave it alone and let the natural enemies to feed upon them and parasitize their larvae.
  • It can also be controlled by spraying Phosphomidon @ 1 ml or Monocrotophos @ 1.5 ml per 3-4 times fortnightly.
  • Pheromone traps are also available for detecting leaf minor moths.

3) Scale Insects :

Citrus Scale Pests: Information On Citrus Scale Control


  • Citrus scale insects are small insects that suck sap from the citrus trees and fruits.
  • Honeydew is produced which is feasted upon by ants.
  • They do not have much mouth parts. Male citrus scale has a short life span.
  • There are mainly two types of scale on citrus plants armored scale and soft scales. 
  • Once dead and soft scale will fall from tree instead of remaining stuck.


  • They can be controlled with the introduction of indigenous parasitic wasps.
  • Neem oil is also effective against them.
  • Spraying of Parathion (0.03%) emulsion, dimethoate 150ml or malathion @0.1% are effective against scale control.
4) Orange Shoot Borer :
Symptoms –
  • Freshly hatched larvae bore into twigs.
  • They feed upon soft tissues.
  • This insect feed upon trees in the day hours.
  • Affected plants tend to lose its vigor.
  • It is very serious pest of citrus plant.
  • It can be controlled by destroying the affected branches.
  • Kerosene oil/petrol injection can also help to control this insect.
  • Monocrotophos (5 ml / 20 ml of water) also helps to control orange shoot borer.
5) Aphids & Mealy Bugs : 
Aphids in citrus | Agriculture and Food    Citrus Mealybugs - The Daily Garden
  • They are small sap sucking pests.
  • Bugs are present on the underside of leaves.
Synthetic pyrethroids or pest oil can be used to control aphids and bugs.
  • On attaining proper size, shape along with attractive color having TSS to Acid ratio of 12:1, kinnow fruits is ready for harvest.
  • Depending upon variety fruits are generally ready for harvesting in Mid- January to Mid- February.
  • Do harvesting at proper time as too early or too late harvesting will give poor quality.
  • After harvesting, wash fruits with clean water then dip fruits in Chlorinated water@2.5ml per Liter water.
  • Then partially dried them.
  • To improve appearance along with to maintain good quality, do Citrashine wax coating along with foam.
  • Then these fruits are dried under shade and then packing is done.
  • Fruits are packed in boxes.

30 t / ha

  • Apply Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 20g per tree at a depth of 15 cm and 50 cm away from the trunk for the management of slow decline due to the citrus root nematode, Tylenchulus semipenetrans.
  • Soil application of 10G @ 2g followed by drenching with metalaxyl plus mancozeb 72 WP @ 0.1% 50 ml/ cutting/ poly bag/ kg of nursery soil for citrus decline.