Botanical Name -Solanum lycopersicum L.
Family - Solanaceae

  • Tomato is originated in Peru of South America.
  • It is important commercial vegetable crop of India.
  • It is the second most important crop of world after potato.
  • Fruits are eaten raw or in cooked form. It is rich source of vitamin A, C, potassium and minerals.
  • It is used in soup, juice and ketch up, powder.
  • The major tomato producing states are Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.
  • In Punjab state, Amritsar, Ropar, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur are tomato growing districts.

1) Punjab Ratta: 

  • Ready for first picking in 125 days from transplanting.
  • Gives average yield of 225qtl/acre.
  • This variety is suitable for processing.

    2) Punjab Chhuhara:
  • Fruits are seedless, pear shape, red and firm with thick wall or skin.
  • Marketable quality remains for 7days after harvesting and thus suitable for long distance transportation and processing.
  • It gives average yield of 325qtl/acre.

3) Punjab Tropic:

  • Plant height is about 100cm.
  • Ready to harvest in 141days.
  • Fruits are of large size and round shape, they borne in cluster.
  • Gives average yield of 90-95qtl/acre.

    4)Punjab Upma:
  • Suitable for cultivation in rainy season.
  • Fruits are oval shape, medium size and of firm deep red color.
  • Gives average yield of 220qtl/acre.

    5)Punjab NR -7:
  • Dwarf variety having medium size juicy fruits.
  • It is highly resistant to fusarium wilt and root knot nematodes.
  • Gives average yield of 175-180qtl/acre.

6) Punjab Red cherry:

  • Developed by Punjab Agricultural University.
  • These cherry tomatoes are used in salads.
  • These are of deep red color and in future it will be available in yellow, orange and pink color.
  • Sowing is done in August or September and plant is ready to harvest in February and gives yield up to July.
  • Its early yield is 150 qtl/acre and total yield is 430-440 qtl per acre.

7) Punjab Varkha Bahar 2: 

  • Ready to harvest in 100days after transplanting.
  • It is resistant to leaf curl virus.
  • Gives average yield of 215 qtl/acre.

8)Punjab Varkha Bahar 1: 

  • After transplanting, ready to harvest in 90days.
  • It is suitable for sowing in rainy season.
  • It gives resistance to leaf curl virus.
  • Gives average yield of 215qtl/acre.  

9)Punjab Swarna: 

  • Released in 2018. It has dark green color foliage.
  • It has oval shaped fruits which is orange in color and medium in size.
  • First picking should be done after 120 days of transplanting.
  • It gives an average yield of 166qtl/acre till end-March and gives total yield of 1087qtl/acre.
  • The variety is suitable for table purpose. 

    10)Punjab Sona Cherry: 
  • Released in 2016. It gives an average yield of 425qtl/acre.
  • The fruits are yellow in color and bears in bunches.
  • The average weight of the fruit is approximately 11gm.
  • It contains 7.5% sucrose content. 
11)Punjab Kesari Cherry: 
  • Released in 2016.
  • It gives an average yield of 405qtl/acre.
  • The average weight of the fruit is approximately 11gm.
  • It contains 7.6% sucrose content.
12)Punjab Kesar Cherry: 
  • Released in 2016.
  • It gives an average yield of 405qtl/acre.
  • The average weight of the fruit is approximately 11gm.
  • It contains 7.6% sucrose content.
13)Punjab Varkha Bahar-4: 
  • Released in 2015.
  • It gives an average yield of 245qtl/acre.
  • It contains 3.8% sucrose content. 
14)Punjab Gaurav: 
  • Released in 2015.
  • It gives an average yield of 934qtl/acre.
  • It contains 5.5% sucrose content.
15)Punjab Sartaj:
  • Released in 2009.
  • It has round shape fruit, moderate and hard.
  • Suitable for rainy season.
  • It gives an average yield of 898qtl/acre. 
  • Released in 2003.
  • The fruits are dark red in color, round hard and approximately 85gm weight.
  • It gives an average yield of 245qtl/acre.
17)Punjab Swarna:
  • Released in 2018.
  • It has dark green color foliage.
  • It has oval shaped fruits which is orange in color and medium in size.
  • First picking should be done after 120 days of transplanting.
  • It gives an average yield of 166qtl/acre till end-March and gives total yield of 1087qtl/acre.
  • The variety is suitable for table purpose.  

Other States Variety

1)HS 101: 

  • Suitable for growing in north India during winter condition.
  • Plants are dwarf. Fruits are round and medium size and juicy.
  • Fruits are borne in cluster.
  • It is resistant to Tomato Leaf Curl Virus.

2)HS 102:

  • Early maturing variety.
  • Fruits are small to medium in size, round and juicy.

3)Swarna Baibhav Hybrid:

  • Recommended for cultivation in Punjab, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
  • It is sown in September- October.
  • Fruits keeping quality is good so suitable for long distance transport and processing.
  • Gives yield of 360-400qtl/acre.

4)Swarna Sampada Hybrid:

  • Recommended for cultivation in Punjab, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Suitable timing for sowing is August – September and February-May.
  • It is resistant to bacterial wilt and early blight.
  • It gives yield of 400-420qtl/acre.

5) Keekruth: 

  • Plant height is about 100cm.
  • Ready to harvest in 136days.
  • Fruits are medium to large size, round shape, deep red color.

6) Keekruth Ageti:

  • Plant height is about 100cm. 
  • Fruits are medium to large size, round shape having green shoulder which disappears on ripening.
TNAU Tomato Hybrid CO 3, Arka Rakshak, Arka Samrat

Soil –

  • It can be grown in varied type of soil sandy loam to clay, black soil and red soil having proper drainage.
  • It gives best result when grown well drained sandy soil with high organic content. For good growth pH of soil should be 7-8.5.
  • It can tolerate moderate acidic and saline soil. Avoid cultivation in high acidic soils.
  • For early crops, light soil is beneficial where for heavy yields clay loam and silt-loam soils are useful.
  • Based on the night temperature requirement for fruit set, tomato varieties are classified into  three.  
    • Normal set varieties: Set fruits at 15-20oC. 
    • Hot set varieties: Set fruits above 20oC – eg : Philipine, Punjab Tropic, Pusa hybrid 1.
    • Cold set varieties: Set fruits below 15oC – eg : Pusa Sheetal, Avalanche

Climate – Tomato is a day-neutral warm season crop

  • The best fruit colour and quality is obtained at a temperature range of 21-24°C. Temperatures above 32o C adversely affects the fruit set and development.
  • The plants cannot withstand frost and high humidity. It requires a low to medium rainfall.

Seed Rate

  • Seed rate of 100gm for preparing seedling for sowing in one acre land.
  • Open pollinated variety: 400-500 g / ha
  • Indeterminate F2 hybrid: 125-175 g / ha.


Seed Treatment
To protect crop from soil borne disease and pest, before sowing do seed treatment with Thiram@3gm or Carbendazim @ 3gm of seeds. After chemical treatment, treat seed with Trichoderma@5gm/kg of seeds.  keep it in shade. And use it for sowing.

Fungicide/Insecticide name

Quantity (Dosage per kg seed)

Carbendazim3 gm
Thiram3 gm

Time of sowing

  • For northern state, tomato cultivation for spring season is done in late November and transplanting in second fortnight of January.
  • For autumn crop, sowing is done in July – August and transplanting in August – September. 
  • In the hills, seeds are usually sown in March-April. 
  • In the plains it grows during  June to November. 
  •  In Kerala seeds are sown in September and transplanted in October.
  • Do solarization for one month before sowing.
  • Sow tomato seeds on raised beds of 80-90cm width and of convenient length. After sowing covered bed with mulch and irrigate bed with Rose-Can daily in morning.
  • To protect crop from virus attack cover nursery bed with fine nylon net.
  • 10-15days after transplanting spray 19:19:19 along with micronutrients@2.5 to 3 gm/ ltr of water.
  • To make plants healthier and stronger and to harden seedling against transplanting sock take spray of Lihocin@1ml/Ltr water at 20days after sowing. Damping Off damages crop to great extent, to prevent crop from it avoid overcrowding of seedlings and keep soil wet.
  • If wilting is observed, do drenching of Metalaxyl@2.5gm/Ltr water, 2-3 times till plants are ready for transplantation.
  • Seedling is ready for transplantation 25 to 30 days after sowing with 3-4 leaves. In case if seedlings age is more than 30 days transplant it after de-toping.
  • Water seedling beds 24hours before transplanting so that seedlings can be easily uprooted and be turgid at transplanting time.
  • To protect crop from bacterial wilt, dip seedlings in 100ppm Streptocycline solution for 5 minutes before transplanting.
  • For tomato plantation, it required well pulverise and levelled soil.
  • To bring soil to fine tilth, plough land for 4-5 times, then planking is done to make soil level.
  • At time of last ploughing add well decomposed cow dung and Carbofuron@ 5 kg or Neem cake@ 8 kg per acre should be applied.
  • Transplantation of tomato is done on raised bed. For that prepared raised bed of 80-90 cm width.
  • Spacing depends  on the growth habit (determinate, indeterminate or semi determinate) of variety and various  spacing followed are 60 x 30-45 cm, 75 x 60 cm and 75 x 75 cm.
  • To destroy harmful soil borne pathogen, pest and organism, soil solarization is carried out.
  • It can be done by using transparent plastic film as mulch. This sheet absorb radiation and thus increases soil temperature and kill pathogen.

Depending upon variety use and its growth habit,

  • Spacing of 60×30 cm or 75×60 cm or 75×75 cm.
  • In Punjab, for dwarf variety use spacing of 75cm x 30cm
  • For rainy season use spacing of 120-150 x 30cm.
  • PKM 1, Paiyur 1, COTH 2, TNAU Tomato Hybrid CO 3 : 60 x 45 cm
    CO 3 : 45 x 30 cm

Sowing Depth

In nursery sow seeds at depth of 4cm and then covered with soil.

Method of sowing
Transplanting of seedling in main field.

  • Plough the land to fine tilth. Prepare the field with the addition of FYM @
    25 t/ ha and form ridges and furrows at a spacing of 60 cm.
  • Apply 2 kg/ha of Azospirillum and 2 kg/ha of Phosphobacteria by mixing with 50 kg of FYM.
  • Irrigate the furrows and transplant 25 days old seedlings on the sides of ridges. Life irrigation to be given on 3rd day of planting.

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

  • In most states, in addition to 15-20  tonnes of FYM, 100-125 kg, N, 50-60 kg P2O5 and 50-60 kg K2O are recommended for one  hectare.
  •  Recommendation for F1 hybrid is 250:250:250 kg NPK/ha. 

  • Additional dose of 10 kg  borax and 5 kg Zinc Sulphate, as basal dose also recommended for correcting fruit  cracking and to increase yield and fruit quality.

  • Apply half dose of Nitrogen, full dose of Phosphorus and Potash applied as basal dose, apply it before transplanting. 20 to 30 days after transplantation apply remaining 1/4th dose of nitrogen.

  • Two month after transplantation, apply remaining dose of Urea.
  • Obtain good fruit quality & yield, take spray of 12:61:00 (Mono Ammonium Phosphate)@10 gm / ltr before flowering.

When flowering starts in initial days, take spray of Boron@25gm/10litre of water. It will help to control flower and fruit dropping.  Sometime black spots are observed on fruits, these are due to calcium deficiency.

  • Take spray of calcium nitrate@2gm/ ltr of water.
  • In high temperature flower drop is seen, spray with NAA@50 ppm (50ml/10L water) when crop is in flowering stage.
  • Give one spray of Sulphate of potash (00:00:50+18S) during fruit development stage @3-5 gm/ltr of water. It will give good fruit development and colour.
  • Fruit cracking reduces fruit quality and lowers prices up to 20%. Take spray of chelated boron (Solubor) @200gm/acre/200Ltr water at fruit ripening stage.
  • To improve plant growth, flowering and fruit set, spray with sea weed extract (Biozyme / Dhanzyme)@3-4 ml/Ltr water twice a month. Maintain good soil moisture.



  • Do frequent weeding, hoeing and earthing up and keep field weed free till 45 days.
  • If weed left uncontrolled then it will reduce crop yield upto 70-90%.
  • Two to three days of after transplantation take spray of Fluchloralin (Basalin) @800ml/200Ltr water as pre-emergence weedicide.
  • If weed intensity is high, take post emergence spray of Sencor@300g/acre.
  • Mulching is also an effective way to reduce soil temperature along with weed control.

Furrow irrigation is the most common method in tomato and the crop require adequate  moisture throughout the growth period. Frequency of irrigation depends on the climatic and soil  conditions. Water stress at  flowering stage will adversely effect fruiting and productivity.

  •  A long spell of drought followed by  heavy irrigation leads to cracking of fruits.
  •  Similarly a dry spell after regular irrigation causes  blossom end rot. 
  • According to various researches, it is found that, half inch irrigation at every fortnight causes maximum penetration of roots and thus gives high yield.
  • Drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation are becoming more common in areas of  water shortage.
  • In winter, apply irrigation with interval of 6 to7 days and  During summer, crop should be irrigated at 3-4 days interval
  • Flowering stage is critical for irrigation, water stress during this stage can leads to flower drop and adversely affecting fruiting and productivity.


Plant growth regulators 

Plant growth regulators are beneficial for early yield, increased fruit set at extreme  temperatures and to impart resistance to viral diseases. However, their effect is not seen  consistent and varied with genotype, climate, location etc. Some of the growth regulators found  useful in tomato production are :


Growth regulator

Mode and time of application

High yield 

 GA1 (5-25 ppm) 

     Seed treatment


 PCPA (10-20ppm) 


 DNOA (25-50ppm) 


 GA (10 ppm) 

      Foliar spray


 NAA (1000 ppm) 


 PCPA (50 ppm) 




Increased fruit set 

NAA (0.1 ppm) 

Seedling soaking for 24  hours

Increased fruit set 

IAA (50 ppm) 

In summer 

Borax (1.0%) 

For increasing fruit set  at low temperature

PCPA 50-100 ppm 

Foliar spray at flower  cluster

Ripening of fruits 

Ethrel 1000 ppm 

Whole plant spray at the  initiation of ripening.

1.Training of Hybrids

  • Stake the plants 30 days after planting with 1 – 1.5 m tall stakes.
  • Remove the side branches up to 20 cm from ground level.


Mulch with black LDPE sheets of 25 micron thickness and bury both the ends into the soil to a depth of 10 cm

3.Weed mat-

  • Weed mat is laid out between the beds .
  • It stops the supply of sunlight to weeds thereby preventing weed growth and also reduces herbicide usage .
  • Weed mats are strong, durable and reused.
  • Foliar spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.5 per cent thrice at 10 days interval from 40 days after planting.
  • Spray 19:19:19 + Mn @ 1 % at 60 days after planting.
  • 0.3% Boric acid at flowering and 10 days later

Production practices for cultivation of tomato under shade net.

During summer, the hybrid tomato can be grown in a shade level of 35 per cent
under paired row planting system (80 x 40 x 60 cm – between pairs, rows and plants) with a basal application of 50 kg each of N and K and 250 kg of P / ha and fertigation of 200 kg each of N and K through straight fertilizers.

1)Leaf Miner:  Liriomyza trifolii


  • Maggots of leaf miner feed on leaf and make serpentine mines into leaf.
  • It affects the photosynthesis and fruit formation.


  • Collect and destroy mined leaves
  • Spray NSKE 5%
  • Spray Neem Seed Kernel Extract 5 %.
  • Cyantraniliprole 10.26 OD 1.8ml/lit.

2)White fly: Bemisia tabaci

Symptoms of damage:

  • Chlorotic spots
  • Yellowing
  • Downward curling and drying of leaves
  • Vector of tomato leaf curl disease
  • Optimal temperature for B. tabaci reproduction was between 28 and 33 °C


  • Uproot and destroy the diseased leaf curl plants
  • Use nitrogen and irrigation judiciously.
  • Remove alternate weed host Abutilon indicum
  • Use yellow sticky traps at 12/ha to attract and kill insects.
  • Apply carbofuran 3% G @ 40 kg /ha or spray any one of the following insecticides

3)Thrips : 

Symptoms of damage:                      

  • Silvery streaks on leaf surface
  • Pre-mature dropping of flowers
  • Bud necrosis.
  • Vector of tomato spotted wilt virus.
  • Thrips favor hot and dry weather.
  • Management
  • Mechanically uproot the diseased plants and destroy them
  • Use yellow sticky traps @ 15/ha
  • Release larvae of Chrysoperla cornea @10,000/ha
  • Spray methyl demeton 25 EC @1lit/ha or dimethoate 30 EC @1lit/ha

4) Fruit Borer: Helicoverpa armigera

Symptoms of damage:

  • Young larvae feed on tender foliage            
  • Mature larvae bore circular holes
  • Thrust only a part of its body into fruit and eat the inner content
  • The fruit borer population reached its maximum (4.45 larvae/ five plants) at 32.7°C maximum, 16.4°C minimum temperature and 60.35 %  relative humidity.


  • Collect and destroy the infected fruits and grown up larvae
  • Grow simultaneously 40 days old American tall marigold and 25 days old tomato seedling at 1:16 rows
  • Setup pheromone trap with Helilure at 12/ha
  • Release Trichogramma pretiosum @ 1 lakh/ha at an interval of 7 days starting from flower initiation stage.
  • Spray HaNPV 1.5 x 1012 POBs/ha.

5) Red spider mite: Tetranychus spp

Symptoms of damage:

  • Affected leaves become reddish brown and bronzy
  • Severe infestation larvae silken webbing on the leaves, wither and dry
  • Flower and fruit formation affected


  • Spray wettable sulphur 50 WP 2g/lit or dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5 ml/lit
  • For effective control spray Spiromesifen 22.9SC(Oberon)@200ml/acre/180Ltr of water.
6.Pinworm: Tuta absoluta


  • Mining of leaves, stem and pinholes on fruits


  • Cyantraniliprole 10.26 OD 1.8ml/lit.
  • Collect and destroy the pinworm affected plants and fruits
  • Avoid solanaceous crops after tomato
  • Use healthy seedlings for transplanting.

 Root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite.

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon): Root-knot nematodes - a photo on Flickriver

  • M. incognita is one of the major constraints in the production of tomato in tropical and subtropical regions.
  • It causes 11 – 35% yield loss in tomatoes.
  • Root knot remains a serious issue in both nursery and field conditions.


Above ground symptoms

  • Infested seedlings may not survive after transplanting.
  • Stunted growth of the plants.

Below ground symptoms

  • Primary galls are small and induced by swelling which coalesce to form larger secondary gall s/ knots on the root.


  • Raised of seedlings in nematode free soil and use of nematode free planting materials.
  • Nursery application of Glomus fasciculatum @ 100g/m2.
  • Soil solarization in nursery beds with white or transparent sheet LLDPE 25 gauge thickness during summer.

Major diseases-

1.Damping off : Pythium aphanidermatum

  • Pre-emergence phase : Complete rotting of seedlings
  • Post-emergence phase: Infected tissues become soft and water soaked.
  • Seedlings topple over or collapse

Favourable Conditions

  • High humidity, high soil moisture, cloudiness and low temperatures below 24°C for few days 
  • Crowded seedlings, dampness due to high rainfall, poor drainage and excess of soil solutes.


  • Avoid stagnation of water.
  • Use raised beds of 15 cm height
  • Treat the seeds with Trichoderma asperellum @ 4 g/kg or Bacillus subtilis @ 10 g/kg of seeds 24 hours before sowing
  • Soil application of Bacillus subtilis @ 2.5 kg/ha with 50 kg of FYM.

2.Early Blight: 

Field Diagnostic Symptoms

  • Brown spots with concentric rings in a bull’s eye pattern with yellow margin
  • Fruit gets infected through calyx or stem attachment
  • Brown concentric rings on fruit

Favourable Conditions

  • Warm, humid (24-29 degree C), rainy and wet weather 


  • Removal and destruction of crop debris
  • Crop rotation
  • Seed Treatment Trichoderma asperellum @ 4g/kg seeds
  • Spray Iprodione 50% WP @ 600 g/ac or Azoxystrobin 23% SC @ 200 ml/ac

3. Fusarium Wilt :Fusarium oxysporum


  • Cleaning of the veinlets and yellowing of the lower leaves.
  • Younger leaves die in Succession
  • Petiole and leaves droop and wilt

Favourable conditions

  • Dry weather (high soil temperature) and low soil moisture.


  • Soil solarization.
  • Crop rotation.
  • Removal of infected plants.
  • Seed treatment with Trichoderma asperellum (viride) @ 4g/kg seeds.

4.Late blight:  Phytophthora infestans


  • Water-soaked black lesions on leaves and stems
  • Lesions expand rapidly and the entire leaf becomes necrotic.

Favourable conditions :

  • Cool nights, warm days and extended wet conditions from rain and fog
  • Sporangia formed when RH is < 90%
  • Optimum temp for sporulation is 18 – 22oC


  • Proper drainage
  • Crop rotation
  • Soil application of Trichoderma asperellum (viride) @ 1.0 kg/ac

5.Leaf curl :  Tomato leaf curl virus


  • Severe stunting of plants
  • Downward rolling and crinkling of the leaves
  • Older leaves become leathery and brittle
  • Shortening of internodes
  • Appearence of more lateral branches – bushy appearance


  • Raising nursery in protected condition
  • Growing Sorghum, Maize or Bajra as barrier crop
  • Use of disease free seeds
  • Spraying Dimethoate 30 EC @ 200 ml/ac or Methyl demeton 25 EC @ 200 ml/ac.

6.Powdery mildew: Leveillula taurica / Oidiopsis neolycopersici


  • Irregular, bright yellow blotches with yellow halo appear on leaves.
  • Abundant white sporulation in the infected area of leaves.

Favourable conditions

  • Warm and dry weather 


  • Field sanitation
  • Spray Propiconazole 25% EC @200 ml/ac
  • Seed treatment with Bacillus subtilis @ 10 g/kg seeds



Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Restricted shoot growth and spindly appearance of plants. 
  • Older leaves at first turn yellowish green; under severe deficiency, the whole plant becomes pale green.

Corrective Measure :

Foliar spray of urea 1% twice at weekly interval.


Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Plants look lush blue-green or purplish in colour. 
  • The stems very thin and stunted while the roots were brown with restricted development of lateral branches.

Corrective Measure :

  • Foliar spray DAP 1% twice at fortnightly interval.


Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Yellowish spots in the margins of new leaves which later spread over the leaf surface and subsequently turned brown, starting with the older leaves. 
  • Plants were stunted, hard and chlorotic.

Corrective Measure :

Foliar spray of K2SO4 1% thrice at weekly interval.


Deficiency Symptoms :

  • The Plants became flaccid; dead spots appeared on the upper stems and the growing apex died. 
  • Upper leaf colouration initially was darker green, but later turning yellow at the edges and died.

Corrective Measure :

Soil application of CaSO4 1 to 2 kg/acre or Foliar spray of CaCl2 0.5% thrice at fortnightly interval.

5. Magnesium

Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Chlorosis of foliage. Interveinal areas became yellow or greenish yellow while leaf margins remained green. 
  • Mg deficiency starts as interveinal yellowing at the leaf margins on older leaves, which later become brown and withered interveinal yellowing and necrosis.

Corrective Measure :

  • Foliar spraying of 2% MgSO4 twice at fortnightly interval or soil application of dolomite at 2 ton/ha or magnesium sulphate at 20 kg/ha.


Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Symptoms are somewhat similar to nitrogen deficiency. Younger leaves are affected. 
  • Lower leaves  yellowish green while the stems were hard and woody.

Corrective Measure :

Foliar spray of CaSO4 1% twice at fortnightly interval or gypsum @ 50 kg/ha.


Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Yellowish of the tips of the leaflets oldest leaves with prominent pink veins. 
  • Yellow spots then enlarged. Yellowing of the tips of lower leaves and brittleness of the leaflets and petioles.

Corrective Measure :

  • Foliar spray Borax 0.3% twice at fortnightly interval or soil application Borax 20 kg/ha.


Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Reduction in growth, curling of leaf upwards and inwards with severe scorching. 
  • Poor root development. Overall gray-green colour followed by chlorosis of lower leaves.

Corrective Measure :

Foliar spray of 0.5% CuSO4 twice at fortnightly interval.



Deficiency Symptoms :

Leaf veins remain green interveinal portion turns yellow young leaves small but not deformed.

Corrective Measure :

Foliar spray of 0.5% FeSO4.



Deficiency Symptoms:

  • Reduction in leaf size and development of interveinal orange-yellow mottling over the tip. 
  • Mottling spreads over the whole leaflet turn yellow while the veins remain green

Corrective Measure :

Foliar spray of MnSO4 0.5% twice at fortnightly interval.



Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Mottling in lower leaves followed by scorching of margins and in rolling.
  •  Extensive flower drop older leaves scenesced and dropped off prematurely with death of the growing point.

Corrective Measure:

Foliar spray of NaMO4 0.05% twice at weekly interval.

12. Zinc


Deficiency Symptoms :

  • Deficiency appears first on older leaves in the form of interveinal chlorosis. 
  • Inhibit both vegetative growth and fruit production.

Corrective Measure :

  • Foliar spray of ZnSO4 1% twice at fortnightly interval.


1.Fruit cracking

Fruit Cracking in Tomato | Weekly Crop Update

Fruit cracking is caused both by genetic and environmental factors. .

  • A long spell of drought followed by sudden heavy irrigation may cause cracking.
  • Wide variation in  day and night temperatures and high humidity also cause fruit cracking.

2.Blossom  red rot


  • Water soaked spots of one cm or more appear at the point of attachment of petals and the affected portion becomes sunken, leathery and dark coloured

3.Sun scald

Sunscald On Tomatoes - Find Cause Of Sunscald In Tomato Plants

Due to extreme heat, tissues on exposed fruit develop a blistered appearance leading to  sunken areas, which have a light or grey colour on green fruit and yellow colour on red fruit

Treat the seeds with metalaxyl-M 31.8% ES @ 2ml/ kg of seeds 24 hours before

110- 115 days from transplanting (135 – 140 days from sowing)
  • Plant starts yielding by 70 days after transplantation.
  • Harvesting is done for purpose like  fresh market, long distance transport etc.
  • Mature green tomatoes, 1/4th fruits portion gives pink color are harvested for long distance markets.
  • Almost all fruits turn into pink or red color but having firm flesh are harvested for local markets.
  • For processing and seed extraction purpose, fully ripe fruits with soft flesh are used.

After harvesting, grading is done.

  • Then fruits are packed in bamboo baskets or crates or wooden boxes.
  • To increase self-life of tomato during long distance transport pre-cooling is carried out.
  • From ripen tomatoes several products like Puree, syrup, juice and ketch up are made after processing.

Varieties : 30-40 t / ha
Hybrids : 80-95 t / ha
Spray of bloom flower – N @ 2ml / litre at – 30, 55 and 75 days planting increase the yield.

 Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg of seeds
 Nursery application with Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens
 Application of Neem cake @ 250kg/ha
 Soil application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2.5kg/ha
 Selection of good and virus disease free seedlings for planting
 Roguing out of virus infected plants upto 45 days of transplanting
 Grow marigold as a border crop
 Set up Helicoverpa / Spodoptera pheromone traps @ 12 numbers / ha
 Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 50000/ha
 Install yellow sticky traps
 Spraying Neem formulations (1%) / Neem seed kernel extract (5%)