Botanical Name - Curcuma longa Val.
Family - Zingiberaceae

  • Turmeric is a perennial herb, native of south Asia.
  • It is also known as “Indian Saffron” is sacred spice of India.
  • It is principal ingredient in Indian culinary and used as flavouring and coloring agent.
  • It is used in drug and cosmetic industry because of its anti-cancer and anti-viral property.
  • Turmeric has special place in religious and ceremonial occasions.
  • Rhizomes are used for propagation. Its leaves are long, broad and of bright green color and flowers are of pale yellow color.
  • India is world largest producer, consumer and exporter of turmeric.
  • In India, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Karnataka and Kerala are major producers of Turmeric.

1.Punjab Haldi 1:

  • Medium heighted plant with green leaves and long, medium thick rhizomes.
  • Flesh is of dark yellow color and skin is of brown color.
  • Ready to harvest in 215 days and its average yield is 108 qtl/acre.   

2.Punjab Haldi 2:

  • Tall variety with light green, broad leaves and long, thick rhizomes.
  • Flesh is of yellow color and skin is of brown color.
  • Ready to harvest in 240 days and its average yield is 122 qtl/acre.  
    Other States Variety

Popular Variety : Amalapuram, Armour, Dindigam, Erode, Krishna, Kodur, Vontimitra, P317, GL Purm I and II, RH2 and RH10

Rajapuri, Salem, Sangli turmeric, Nizamabad bulb.

 Soil –

  • It gives best results, when grown on well drained loamy soils also in sandy or clay loam or red loamy soils.
  • Avoid water stagnation in field as it cannot survive in water logged conditions.

Climate –

  • It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop.
  • It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and an annual rainfall between 75cm.

Time of sowing

  • To get higher yield, complete rhizome sowing in field by April end.
  • It is also raised by transplanting method, for that rhizome transplantation should be completed within first fortnight of June.
  • For transplanting 35-45 days old seedling is used.  

Seed Rate

  • For sowing, select fresh and diseased free rhizomes (mother rhizomes as well as fingers) are used.
  • Seed rate of 6-8 qtl is sufficient for sowing one acre land.

Seed treatment

  • Before sowing, carry out rhizome treatment with Quinalphos 25EC @ 20ml + Carbendazim@10 gm /10Ltr of water and prepare solution.
  • Then dip rhizomes for 20 min in solution.
  • It protects rhizomes from fungal infestation.
  • The technique involves raising transplants from single bud rhizomes (5-7 gm ) in the
    protray and planting in the field after 30-40 days.
  • The advantages of this technology are production of healthy planting materials and reduction in seed rhizome quantity and eventually reduced cost on seeds.
  •  Select healthy turmeric rhizomes for seed purpose
  • Treat the selected rhizomes with mancozeb (0.3%) and quinalphos (0.075%) for 30 min and store in well ventilated place
  • One month before planting, the seed rhizomes are cut into single bud rhizomes(4g) with small piece of bud sprout weighing 5-7 g.
  •  Treat the single bud sprouts (Mancozeb 0.3%) for 30 min before planting
  • Fill the protrays (98 cells) with nursery medium containing partially decomposed coir pith and vermicompost (75:25), enriched with     PGPR/Trichoderma 10g/kg of mixture
  •  Plant the turmeric bud sprouts in protrays
  •  Maintain the protrays under shade net house (50%)
  • Adopt need based irrigation with rose can or by using suitable sprinklers
  • Transplants will be ready within 30-35 days for transplanting
  • Main field is ploughed four times with chisel and disc plough each one time and
    cultivator twice.
  • Ridges and furrows are formed at spacing of 45 cm (or) raised beds of 120
    cm width are formed at an interval of 30 cm and the laterals are placed at the centre of each bed.
  • The beds are wetted for 8-12 hours through drip irrigation depending upon soil moisture


  • Sow rhizomes in line and keep distance of 30 cm between the row and 20 cm between two plant.
  • After rhizome planting, straw mulch@ 2.5 ton/acre is applied in field.
  • Depth of soil should not exceed 3 cm.

Method of sowing
Direct sowing and transplanting method is used for planting.

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

2560       16

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

  • At the time of field preparation, apply well decomposed cow-dung @ 150 qtl/acre in soil. Apply N:P:K @10:10:10 kg / acre in form of Urea @ 25 kg /acre, SSP @ 60 kg / acre and MOP @16 kg /acre.
  • Full dose of Potash and Phosphorus are applied at time of rhizome planting.
  • Nitrogen dose is given in two equal splits.
  • First half dose of N is given 75 days after planting and remaining half dose is given three month after planting.  
  • Apply Pendimethalin 30 EC @ 800 ml per acre or Metribuzin 70 WP @ 400 gm/ acre in 200Ltr of water within two – three days after planting rhizomes.
  • After weedicide application, cover field with green manure or paddy straw.
  • Earthing up operation is carried to enhanced root development. After 50-60 days of planting, carry out first earthing operation and next should be done after 40 days.
  • It is grown as rainfed crop so provide irrigation depending upon rainfall intensity and rainfall frequency.
  • For light textured soil, in whole life cycle, 35-40 irrigations are required.
  • After planting, crop is mulched with green leaves@40-60 qtl /acre.
  • Repeat mulching@30 qtl/acre after every fertilizer application. 
  • Onion, Chilli, Elephant foot yam, Coriander and Fenugreek can be planted as intercrop on the sides of the ridges 10 cm apart.
  • Redgram and Castor can also be planted at wider spacing.
  • First weeding after three weeks and subsequently whenever necessary.
  • The plants are earthed up at the time of 2nd and 4th top dressings

1) Rhizome fly: 

  • If Infestation of rhizome fly is observed in field, to control take spray of Acephate 75SP@600gm in 100Ltr of water.
  • Repeat the spray with 15days interval.

2)Sucking pest:


To control sucking pests take spray of neem based pesticide like Azadirachtin 0.3EC@ 2 ml/Ltr of water.

3)Shoot borer:

Pest of Turmeric and Ginger

If infestation of shoot borer is observed, take spray of Dimethoate@250ml/150Ltr or Quinalphos@250ml/150Ltr of water to control shoot borer.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Pale or yellow green leaves (chlorosis) symptoms appear first in the older leaves. 
  • Reddish tints gradually appear at the leaf margins spread toward the midrib or central vein. 
  • Leaves are small.  Overall growth is markedly reduced.
  • Deficiency results in reduction of rhizome yield.
Correction Measure

Application of 140 kg N/ha in the form of Urea in five split doses viz. at planting, 30, 60, 90 and 120 DAP along with 60 kg P2O5 and 60 Kg K2O or foliar spray of DAP 2% or 1% Urea twice at weekly interval.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Reduced growth, color may intensify, browning or purpling in foliage in some plants, thin stems, reduced lateral breaks, loss of lower leaves.
Correction Measure
  • 6 kg superphosphate in 100 lit of water-is made previous day evening and  next day clear filtrate collected. 
  • To this add 150g urea, 150g MgSO4, 150g FeSO4, and 100g borax. 
  • Mixture should be sprayed in the interval of 15 days till symptoms disappear.



Deficiency Symptoms

Reduced growth, shortened internodes, marginal burn or scorch (brown leaf edges), necrotic (dead) spots in the leaf, reduction of lateral breaks and tendency to wilt readily.

Correction Measure

Application of K at 90 kg/ha in four splits (basal, 60, 90 and 120 DAP) or foliar spray of K2SO4 at 1% at fortnightly interval



Deficiency Symptoms

Stunted plant growth, leaves turn to pale yellow, finally chlorosis symptoms will occur.

Correction Measure

Foliar spray of Magnesium sulphate solution (5g MgSo4 dissolved in 1 lit of water) +10g urea in the interval of 15 days on the foliage till the symptoms disappear



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Symptoms occur on new growth. 
  • Leaves appear mottled, light green to yellow green in-between the veins.
Correction Measure

Spray with Manganese Sulphate solution 0.5% twice at meekly intervals.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • The deficiency of iron shows up first in the young leaves of plants, which develop interveinal chlorosis and it progresses rapidly over the entire leaf. 
  • In severe cases, the leaves turn completely white.
Correction Measure

Soil application of FeSO4 at 30kg/ha followed by foliar spray of FeSO4 (2.5 kg/ha) during 3rd, 4th and 5th months

  • Avoid planting turmeric after banana or solanaceous vegetables.
  • Apply carbofuran 3G @ 1kg a.i./ha twice on the third and fifth month after planting the rhizomes.

1) Blight and leaf spots:


  • In affected leaves, elliptic or oblong spots with yellow halo are seen.
  • The centre of spots are grayish white and then with numerous black dots in centre
  • As the disease advances, the leaves dry up and give a scorched appearance


  • If infestation of blight and leaf spot is observed, take spray of Mancozeb @ 30 gm or Carbendazim @ 30gm in 10 ltr water by interval of 15-20 alternatively. Or spray with Propiconazole@2ml/ltr of water.

2) Root or Rhizome Rot : 

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  • In infected plants, basal portion of the shoots appear watery and soft.
  • The root system is very much reduced
  • The leaves exhibit gradual drying along the margin
  • Infected rhizomes soft, rotted, color changes into different shades of brown


To prevent crop from root rot, drench crop with Mancozeb@3gm / Ltr at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting.

3) Bacterial wilt :

TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection


To prevent crop from bacterial wilt, drench plants with Copper oxychloride @3 gm / Ltr of water immediately after disease is seen in field.

4) Leaf Blotch :


  • The spots of 1-2 mm diameter appear in more numbers, covering both sides of leaf.
  • The attacked leaf presents a reddish brown appearance instead of the normal green colour.
  • These spots coalesce to form irregular bigger patches.


If infestation is observed to control take spray of Mancozeb@20gm or Copper oxycloride@25gm/10Ltr of water.
  • Depending upon variety, it takes 6-9 months for harvesting.
  • Right time for harvesting of turmeric is when leaves of turmeric gets yellow and dry out completely
  • Remove rhizomes by dugging and after harvesting clean rhizomes. Then dry them in shades for 2-3days.
  • It will make peel hard and easy for boiling.
  • After cleaning, rhizomes are boiled in water containing sodium bicarbonate (100 gm sodium bicarbonate in 100 Ltr water) for 1hour.
  • For boiling of rhizomes, utensils, kadhai and boilers are used.
  • To get better quality product, stop the boiling when froth comes out and white fumes appear giving out a typical odour (Price deciding factor).
  • After boiling rhizomes are dried properly for 10-15 days.
  • After proper drying, polishing of rhizomes is done manually using wire mesh, gunny bags or mechanically by power operated drum.
  • Then grading of polished rhizomes is done on basis of size, shape and color.

Fresh rhizomes: 25-30 t/ha,

Cured rhizomes: 5-6 t/ha

Growing Districts                                 Karur, Villupuram, Coimbatore, Salem, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Erode
Major markets in Tamil Nadu           Erode, Karur, Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri
Grade designation                               Alleppey Finger Turmeric, Rajapure Finger Turmeric
Grade specification                             Bright Yellow colour, size above 3cm length, hard, when broken gives metal sound , smooth skin ,                                                                               without impurities