Custard apple / Sitaphal
Botanical Name - Annona squamosa
Family -Annonaceae

Balanagar, Mammoth, Atemoya, APK-1, Arka Sahan, Dharur 6 and Roydurg

  • The land should be ploughed well and pits of 60 m3 should be dug out.
  • In Goa, it is cultivated in most of the backyards.


Soil – 

  • The Custard Apple is not very particular about soil conditions and flourishes in all types of soils like sahllow, sandy, but fails to grow if the subsoil is ill drained.
  • It can grow well in deep black soils provided they are well drained.

Climate – 

  • Custard apple requires warm and humid tropical climate, with mild winters.
  • The optimum temperature requirement is 20 to 35 C.
  • It can be successfully cultivated from sea level to even 1000 M above MSL.
  • A well drained soil is ideal for the crop.
  • Crop is suitable for soils of shallow depth and also saline nature.
Seedlings / grafts
  • The pits should be kept open for 2-3 weeks.
  • Later on, 15-20 kg of manure should be mixed with the dug out or top soil and then, filled back into the pit.
  • Well established grafts should be planted in the centre of the pit.
  • Spacing of 5 x 5m can be followed.
  • Staking need to be provided to avoid lodging.


6 x 6 m



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Plants look lush blue-green or purplish in color.
  • Mature leaves to be small, initially purplish tints and scorched areas, later become yellow with purple veins and died prematurely.
Correction Measure

Soil application of single super phosphate



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Yellowish spots in the margins of new leaves which later spread over the surface and subsequently turned brown, starting with the older leaves.
  • Leaves first become grey at the margin and later interveinally.
Correction Measure

Soil application of KCl@300-500g/tree.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Upper leaf coloration initially was darker green, but, later turning yellow at the edges and died.
  • Fruit showing blossom end rot were found to ripen less rapidly
Correction Measure

Application gypsum@ 50 kg/ha



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Chlorosis of leaves.
  • Interveinal areas became yellow or greenish yellow while leaf margins remained green.
Correction Measure

Soil application of dolomite



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Symptoms are somewhat similar to nitrogen deficiency.
  • Younger leaves are affected.
  • Older leaves developd necrosis at tips and margins with development of small purple spots between the veins.
Correction Measure

Soil application of gypsum@2-5kg/tree/year




  • High uptake of boron from the soil.
  • Generally caused by applying boron unevenly or at high rates.
  • Leaves near growing point yellowed, growth bud appear white or brownish dead tissue.


  • Apply boron at 2.0gm /m2 and broadcast over the ground area under the canopy.
  • Boron and calcium sprays during flowering and early fruit set are beneficial in reducing internal fruit browning
  • Do annual leaf and soil analyses to monitor boron levels.
  • Take particular care to apply boron at the correct rates.



Deficiency Symptoms
  • Symptoms are first seen in the youngest leaves.
  • Initially the smallest veins remani green, which produces areticulate pattern of green veins on yellow leaves.
  • The leaves turn completely chlorotic but there is no associated necrosis.
Correction Measure

Soil application of FeSO4@0.5 kg /tree



Deficiency Symptoms

Interveinal chlorosis; shortened internodes; epinastic curvature of leaves

Correction Measure

Soil application of ZnSO4@ 20kg/tree/year or foliar spray of ZnSO4@0.5%

1.Fruit borer: Heterographis bengalella

Symptoms of damage

  • Caterpillar bore into the fruits making tunnels and feed on the internal content of the fruits
  • Affected fruits fall to ground


  • Collect and destroy the damaged fruits
  • Spray malathion 0.1% two times once at flower formation and second at fruit set

2.Fruit fly: Bactrocera zonata

Symptoms of damage

  • Maggot bore into the semi ripened fruits
  • Feed on the inside fruits
  • Affected fruits gets shriveled, malformed, rot and fall off


  • Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit and covering with soil
  • Immersion of fruits in hot water (45 to 47 °C) for 60 minutes to kill eggs and maggots
  • Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps.
  • Use bait spray combing any one of the insecticides and molasses or jaggery 10 g/l,
    • Fenthion 100 EC 1ml/l
    • Malathion 50 EC 2 ml/l
    • Dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l
    • Carbaryl 50 WP 4 g/l

3.Tailed mealy bug: Ferrisa virgata 

Symptoms of damage:

  • Adults and crawlers are found on leaves, young shoots and fruit (between segments)
  • Yellowing of leaves
  • Reduction of fruit size and do not fetch premium price in the market


  • Collect and destroy the mealy bug infested leaves, shoots and fruits
  • Spray dichlorvos 0.05%, two times at new flush and shoot formation and second at fruit set.
  • Release Cryptolaemous montrouzieri beetles @ 10/tree
  • A dose of FYM @ 10-15 kg and NPK @ 250:125:250g/plant/year should be applied in two split doses. 
  • Full dose of FYM and half of chemical fertilizers should be applied at the beginning of monsoon season (April-May) and remaining half towards the end of the monsoon (October).

Irrigate once in 7-8 days


Weeding as and when required to keep field clean

 After 4-5 years of planting. 

Average yield of 80-100 fruits/tree/year