Wheat
Botanical Name - Triticum Sp.
Family - poaceae

  • Wheat is the world’s number one cereal in area. Cultivation of wheat is as old as  civilization.
  • It is the first mentioned crop in Bible. Wheat is eaten in various forms by more than  1000 million people in the world.
  • In India, it is second important staple food crop next to rice. In  areas wheat is staple cereal food; it is eaten in the form of ‘chapattis’.
  • In areas where rice is the  staple cereal food, wheat is eaten in the form of ‘puris’ or in the form of ‘upma’ (cooked from ‘suji’ or ‘rawa’).
  • In addition to this, wheat is also consumed in various other preparations such as ‘dalia’,  ‘halwa’, ‘sweet meals’, etc.

In most of the urban areas of the country, the use of backed leavened  bread, flakes, cakes, biscuits, etc. is increasing at a fast rate. Besides staple food to human, wheat  straw is a good source of feed for a large population of cattle in the country.

  • Wheat is widely cultivated cereal, spread from 57ºN to 47ºS latitude.
  • Hence, wheat is  cultivated and harvested throughout the year in one country or other. China, India, Russian  federation, USA, France, Canada, Germany, Pakistan, Australia and Turkey are most important  wheat growing countries.
  • In India, UP, Punjab, Haryana, MP, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat,  Maharashtra, Uttaranchal and West Bengal are the important wheat cultivating states. 
  • Wheat is grown on 13 percent of the cropped area of India.
  • Next to rice, wheat is the most important food-grain of India and is the staple food of millions of Indians, particularly in the northern and north-western parts of the country.
  • It is rich in proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates and provides balanced food.
  • India is the fourth largest producer of wheat in the world after Russia, the USA and China and accounts for 8.7 % of the world’s total production of wheat.

SPECIES OF WHEAT 

There are 7 in the world, only 4 is important in India, they are: 

  1. Common wheat (T. vulgare / aestivum
  • It is also called as Bread wheat. Most suited for chapati and bakery.
  • It is cultivated  throughout India.

Common wheat may be sub-divided in to,  

  • Hard red winter wheat – commercial class 
  • Hard red spring – where winter is too severe, high protein and excellent bread making  characteristics 
  • Soft red winter – grown in humid conditions, grains are soft, low protein, flour more suitable  for cakes, cookies 
  • White wheat – mainly for pasty purpose 
  1. Duram wheat (T. durum
  • Also called as Macroni wheat.
  • It is best suited for preparation of noodles, vermicelli, etc. 
  • Has spring habit and cultivated in Central & Southern India. 
  1. Emmer wheat (T. dicoccum
  • Otherwise called as Winter / spring wheat.
  • Wheat suitable for cultivation in Tamil Nadu,  Gujarat, Maharashtra, AP. Preferred for granular preparation. 
  1. Short wheat (T sphaerococcum
  • Commonly known as Indian dwarf wheat.
  • Practically, gone out-off cultivation due to low  productivity.
  • Small extent North India and West Pakistan for local consumption. 
  • Wheat has hardening ability after germination.
  • It can germinate at temperature just above  4ºC.
  • After germination it can withstand freezing temperatures by as low as -9.4º C (Spring wheat)  and as low as -31.6º C (Winter wheat).
  • Normal process starts above 5ºC under the presence of  adequate sunlight.
  • Wheat can be exposed to low temperature during vegetative and high  temperature and long days during reproductive phases.
  • Optimum temperature for vegetative stage is 16-22ºC.
  • Temperature above 22ºC decreases the plant height,  root length and tiller number.
  • Heading is accelerated as temperature rose from 22 to 34ºC, but,  retarded above 34ºC.
  • At grain development stage, temperature of 25ºC for 4-5 weeks is optimum  and above 25ºC reduces the grain weight.  

It is long day plant. Long day hastens the flowering and short day increase the vegetative  period. But, after the release of photo-insensitive varieties, no issues of photo-sensitiveness..

Temperature – 21-26°C
Rainfall – 75 cm (max) 20-25 cm (min)
Sowing Temperature – 18-22°C
Harvesting Temperature – 20-25°C
 
  • Soils with a clay loam or loam texture, good structure and moderate water holding capacity are ideal for wheat cultivation.
  • Heavy soil with good drainage is suitable for wheat cultivation under dry conditions.
  • Wheat selection programme was carried out in PUSA, Bihar.
  • They released T. aestivam cultivars. Durum and Emmer wheat varieties were released before independence.
  • Wheat  Improvement Programme done by Dr. B.P. Pillai in IARI, New Delhi.
  • Introduction of semi-dwarf  wheat varieties was made in 1963 from Mexico.
  • Most important varieties released are Sonora 64 &  Lerma Rojo which has non-lodging, higher yield and Fertilizer response.
  • Increase in wheat  production during 63-67 was called as “Green revolution”. 

Further genetic advancement in these led to Kalyansona, Sonalika, UP 301 which increased  area and productivity. Currently, Sonak was released to replace Sonalika and HD 2285, PBW 343,  HD 2687, WH 542, UP 2336, Raj 3077, CPAN 3004, PDW 215 etc. are released for cultivation.  

1.PBW 752:
  • Late variety.
  • This variety is suitable for sowing in irrigated conditions.
  • It gives an average yield of 19.2qtl/acre.
2.PBW 1 Zn:
  • The plant of this variety attains the height of 103 cm.
  • The crop is ready to harvest in 151 days.
  • It gives an average of 22.5 qtl/acre of crop yield.
3.UNNAT PBW 343:
  • Suitable for irrigated and timely sown areas.
  • Ready to harvest in 155 days.
  • It is resistant to lodging, water logging conditions.
  • It is also resistant to karnal bunt and tolerant to blight.
  • It gives average yield of 23.2 qtl/acre.
4.WH 542:
  • It is suitable for timely sown, irrigated areas.
  • Ready to harvest in 135-145 days.
  • It is resistant to stripe rust, leaf rust and karnal bunt.
  • It give average yield of 20 qtl/acre.
5.PBW 725:
  • It is dwarf variety, released by Punjab Agriculture University.
  • It is suitable for timely sown irrigated areas.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust.
  • Its grains are amber, hard and medium bold.
  • It is ready to harvest in 155 days.
  • It gives average yield of 23 qtl/acre.
6.PBW 677 (2015):
  • It is moderately resistant to yellow and brown rust.
  • Its average grain yield is 22.4 quintals per acre.
  • This variety is suitable for growing under poplar plantation.
7.HD 2851:
  • This variety is suitable for timely sowing and is grown in irrigated areas.
  • The variety matures in 126-134 days and the plant attains the height of 80-90cm.
8.WHD-912:
  • It is a double dwarf Durum variety which is used for Bakery in Industry.
  • Protein content 12%.
  • Resistant Yellow & Brown and rust as well as karnal bunt.
  • The yield is near about 21 qtl/ acre.
9.HD 3043:
  • Gives average yield of 17.8 qtl/acre.
  • It has shown a high level of resistance against stripe rusts and leaf rust.
  • It has the higher value of bread loaf volume (cc), bread quality score.”
10.WH 1105:
  • Developed by Punjab Agriculture University.
  • It is a double dwarf variety with an average plant height of 97 cm.
  • Its grains are amber, hard, medium bold and lustrous.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust and brown rust but susceptible to karnal bunt and loose smut diseases.
  • It matures in about 157 days and its average grain yield is 23.1 quintals per acre.
11.PBW 660:
  • Developed by Punjab Agriculture University released for cultivation under rain fed conditions in the Punjab state.
  • It is a dwarf variety with an average plant height of 100 cm.
  • Its grains are amber, hard, bold and lustrous with very good chapatti quality.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts but susceptible to lose smut disease.
  • It matures in about 162 days and its average grain yield is 17.1 quintals per acre.
12.PBW-502:
  • Developed by Punjab Agricultural University.
  • Suitable for timely sown irrigated conditions.
  • It is resistant to leaf rust and stripe rust.
  • Average yield 20.4 quintal per acre.
13.HD 3086 (Pusa Gautam):
  • It gives average yield of 23 qtl/acre.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust and brown rust.
  • It meets all the criteria for superior bread making qualities.
14.HD 2967 :
  • It is double dwarf variety with an average plant height of 101 cm.
  • The ears are medium dense.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust but susceptible to karnal bunt and loose smut diseases.
  • It takes about 157 days to mature.
  • The yield is 21.5 qtl /acre.
15.DBW17:
  • The height of the plant is 95 cm. Grains are amber hard, medium bold and lustrous.
  • It is susceptible to new races of yellow rust and moderately resistant to brown rust.
  • It matures in 155 days.
  • The average yield is 23 qtl/acre.
16.PBW 621:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 158 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts diseases.
  • It has an average height of 100 cm.
  • Its average yield is about 21.1 quintal per acre.
17.UNNAT PBW 550:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 145 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts diseases.
  • It has an average height of 86 cm.
  • It gives an average yield of 23 qtl/acre.
18.TL 2908:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 153 days.
  • It is resistant to mostly all major diseases.
  • It has an average height of 113 cm.
19.PBW 175:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 165 days.
  • It is resistant to Rust and Karnal bunt diseases.
  • It has an average height of 110 cm.
  • It gives average yield of 17.8 quintals per acre.
20.PBW 527:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 160 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust diseases.
  • It has an average height of 100 cm.
21.WHD 943:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 154 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust diseases.
  • It has an average height of 93 cm.
22.PDW 291:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 155 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust, loose smut and flag smut diseases.
  • It has an average height of 83 cm.
23.PDW 233:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 150 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust, loose smut and karnal bunt diseases.
  • It has an average height of 98 cm.
  • It gives an average yield of 19.5 quintals per acre.
24.PBW 590:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 128 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts diseases.
  • It has an average height of 80cm.
25.PBW 509:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab except sub-mountainous region.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 130 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts diseases.
  • It has an average height of 85cm.
26.PBW 373:
  • It is grown in all areas of Punjab.
  • It gets ready for harvesting within 140 days.
  • It is resistant to brown rusts diseases.
  • It has an average height of 90 cm.
  • It gives average yield of 16.4 quintals per acre.
27.PBW 869 (2021):
  • It is recommended for sowing with happy seeder / super seeder and PAU smart seeder in in-situ rice residue managed fields and account with seed rate of 45 kg per acre.
  • Resistant to brown rust and moderately resistant to yellow rust.
  • Its average yield is about 23.2 quintal per acre.
28.PBW 824 (2021):
  • This variety is mature in 156 days.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust and moderately resistant to yellow rust.
  • Its average yield is about 23.3 quintal per acre.
29.PBW 803 (2021):
  • It is recommended for the cultivation in south-western region of Punjab (Bathinda, Faridkot, Shri muktsar sahib, mansa and Ferozepur).
  • It is resistant to brown rust and moderately resistant to yellow rust.
  • It is average yield is about 23.7 quintal per acre.
30.Sunehri (PBW 766) (2020):
  • This variety is resistant to brown rust and moderately resistant to yellow rust.
  • Its average yield is about 23.1 quintal per acre.
31.HD 3271 (2020):
  • It is suitable for late sown conditions.
  • It is resistant to stripe rust, and leaf rust.
  • It matures in about 104 days and Its average yield is about 13.1 quintals per acre.
32.HD 3298 (2020):
  • It is suitable for late sown conditions.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust, leaf rust and brown rust.
  • It matures in about 104 days and Its average yield is about 15.6 quintals per acre.
33.HI 1628 (2020):
  • It is tolerant variety to terminal heat.
  • It matures in about 147 days and Its average yield is about 20.1 quintals per acre.
34.PBW 1 chapati (2020):
  • It is a premium quality bread wheat variety having excellent chapati making properties.
  • It is resistant to brown rust and moderately resistant to yellow rust.
  • Its average yield is about 17.2 quintal per acre.
35.DBW 222 (2020):
  • It is recommended for cultivation of wheat except sub-mountainous regions.
  • Moderately susceptible to yellow rust and resistant to brown rust.
  • Its average yield is about 22.3 quintal per acre.
36.DBW 187 (2020):
  • It is resistant to brown rust and moderately resistant to yellow rust.
  • Its average yield is about 22.6 quintal per acre.
37.HD 3226 (2020):
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust.
  • It possesses good grain quality characteristics and its average yield 21.9 q per acre.
38.HD 3237 (2019):
  • It is suitable variety for bread and chapati making.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust, leaf rust and brown rust.
  • It matures in about 145 days and Its average yield is about 19.36 quintals per acre.
39.HI 1620 (2019):
  • It is suitable for sown under drought conditions and terminal heat.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust, leaf rust and brown rust.
  • It matures in about 146 days and Its average yield is about 19.6 quintals per acre.
40.HI 1621 (2019):
  • It is suitable for late sown conditions.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust, leaf rust and brown rust.
  • It matures in about 102 days and Its average yield is about 13.1 quintals per acre.
41.UNNAT PBW 343 (2017):
  • It is suitable for irrigated and timely sown areas.
  • Ready to harvest in 155 days.
  • It is resistant to lodging, water logging conditions.
  • It is also resistant to Karnal bunt and tolerant to blight.
  • It gives average yield of 23.2 quintals per acre.
42.PBW 677 (2015):
  • It is moderately resistant to yellow and brown rust.
  • Its average grain yield is 22.4 quintals per acre.
  • This variety is suitable for growing under poplar plantation.
43.HD 3059 (2014):
  • It is late sown variety and mature in about 121 days.
  • It is suitable variety for bread and chapati.
  • It is resistant to all type of rust. It gives average yield of 17.4 qtl /acre.
44.PBW 660 (2014):
  • Developed by Punjab Agriculture University released for cultivation under rain fed conditions in the Punjab state.
  • It is a dwarf variety with an average plant height of 100 cm.
  • Its grains are amber, hard, bold and lustrous with very good chapatti quality.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rusts but susceptible to lose smut disease.
  • It matures in about 162 days and its average grain yield is 17.1 quintals per acre.
45.HD 2967 (2011):
  • It is double dwarf variety with an average plant height of 101 cm.
  • The ears are medium dense.
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust but susceptible to Karnal bunt and loose smut diseases.
  • It takes about 157 days to mature.
  • The yield is 21.5 quintals per acre.
2.Late sown irrigated varieties
47.PBW 771 (2020):
  • It is moderately resistant to yellow rust and resistant to brown rust.
  • Average yield 19.0 quintals per acre.
48. PBW 757 (2020):
  • It is sown under late and irrigated conditions (January sowing).
  • Average yield 15.8 quintals per acre.
  • It is moderately resistant to yellow rust and resistant to brown rust.
49.PBW 752 (2019):
  • It is resistant to yellow and brown rust.
  • Its average plant height is 89 cm and matures in about 130 days.
  • Its average grain yield is 19.2 quintals per acre.
OTHER STATE VARIETIES:-
50.RAJ-3765:
  • It matures in 120-125 days.
  • Heat tolerant and suitable for zero tillage, Susceptible to brown rust, moderately susceptible to stripe rust and karnal bunt.
  • The yield is near about 21 qtl/ acre.
51.UP-2338:
  • It matures in 125-130 days.
  • It is susceptible to leaf rust and moderately susceptible to stripe rust.
  • Susceptible to karnal bunt and tolerant to blight.
  • The yield is near about 21 qtl/acre.
52.UP-2328:
  • It matures in 130-135 days.
  • Ear heads are hard, sarbati colour & medium size grains.
  • It is suitable for irrigated areas. The yield is near about 20-22 qtl /acre.
53.Sonalika:
  • Early maturing single dwarf wheat with wide adaptation and attractive amber grains.
  • It is suitable for late sowing and resistant to rusts.
  • The yield is near about 13.8 quintals per acre.
54.Kalyansona:
  • A double dwarf wheat with wide adaptation recommended for cultivation all over India.
  • This variety is very vulnerable to rust.
  • It is, therefore, advisable to grow it only in rust free regions.
  • It gives average yield of 12.4 quintals per acre.
55.UP-(368):
  • High yielding variety developed by Pantnagar.
  • It is resistant to rust and karnal bunt.
57.WL-(711):
  • It is single dwarf, high yielding and medium maturing variety.
  • It is moderately susceptible to powdery mildew and karnal bunt.
  • It gives average yield of 18.1 quintals per acre.
58.UP- (319):
  • It is triple dwarf wheat with high level of rust resistance.
  • To avoid losses to shattering, it should be harvested at appropriate time.
  • It gives average yield of 13.4 quintals per acre.
59.HD 3249:
  • This variety is timely sown under irrigated conditions.
  • Its average yield is about 19.4 quintals per acre.
  • It is resistant to yellow rust, leaf rust and brown rust.
Late varieties of wheat – HD-2932, RAJ-3765, PBW-373, UP-2338, WH-306, 1025.
 
 
  • After harvest of previous crop, the field should be ploughed with disc or mould board plough.
  • Field is usually prepared by giving one deep plough with iron plough followed by two or three times local plough and planking.
  • Carried out plough in evening time and kept furrow open whole night to absorb some moisture from dew.
  • Planting should be done after each plough early in the morning.
TIME OF SOWING
  • Wheat must be sown at the optimum time.
  • Delayed sowing causes a gradual decline in the yield of wheat.
  • The time of sowing is 25 October – November.
SPACING
  • For normal sown crop a spacing of 20 – 22.5 cm between rows is recommended.
  • When sowing is delayed a closer spacing of 15-18 cm should be adopted.
SOWING DEPTH
The sowing depth should be 4-5 cm.
 
METHOD OF SOWING
1. Seed drill
2. Broadcasting method
3. Zero tillage drill
4. Rotavator

Sowing Period 

Area/Conditions/Purpose

Varieties

From 4th week of October  to 4th week of November

Entire state 

PBW 826, PBW 824, Sunehri (PBW  766), DBW 187, HD 3226, Unnat PBW 343, PBW 725, PBW 677, HD  3086 and WH 1105

Entire state except sub  mountainous districts

DBW 222 and HD 2967

South Western districts  of Punjab

PBW 803

Entire state/ For sowing  with happy seeder and  super seeder

PBW 869

Entire state/ Product  

specific 

PBW Zinc 2, PBW 1 Chapati and  PBW 1 Zn

From 2nd week of  November to 4th week of  November

Entire state 

PBW RS1 and Unnat PBW 550

From 4th week of October  to 1st week of November

Entire state/ Product  

specific (Durum  

varieties)

WHD 943 and PDW 291

From 4th week of  November to 4th week of  December 

Entire state 

PBW 771 and PBW 752

For first fortnight of  January

Entire state 

PBW 757

 
Seed Rate-
  • Use seed rate of 45 kg per acre.
  • The seed should be cleaned and graded thoroughly before sowing.
Seed Treatment-
For seed treatment use any one fungicide from the following:
Fungicide/Insecticide Name
  • Raxil 2 gm/kg per seed
  • Thiram 2 gm/kg per seed
  • Vitavax 2 gm/kg per seed
  • Tebuconazole 2 gm/kg per seed
  • For Termite:
  • In termite infested soil, treat the seed with 1 g Cruiser 70 WS  (thiamethoxam) or 2 ml Neonix 20 FS (imidacloprid+hexaconazole) or 4 ml Dursban/ Ruban/Durmet 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) per kg seed and dry it in shade.
  • Seed treated  with Neonix also control smuts of wheat. 
  • For Loose Smut:
  • Treat 40 kg seed with 13 ml Raxil Easy/Orius 6 FS  (tebuconazole) by dissolving in 400 ml water or 120 g Vitavax Power 75 WS  (carboxin+tetramethyl thiurum disulphide) or 80 g Vitavax 75 WP (carboxin) or 40 g  Tebuseed/Seedex/Exzole 2 DS (tebuconazole) per 40 kg seed. 
  • For Flag Smut:
  • Treat 40 kg seed with 13 ml Orius 6 FS (tebuconazole) by  dissolving in 400 ml water or 120 g Vitavax Power 75 WS (carboxin+tetramethyl  thiurum disulphide) or 80 g Vitavax 75 WP (carboxin) or 40 g Tebuseed/Seedex/Exzole  2 DS (tebuconazole) per 40 kg seed.

Fertilizer Application  

Follow integrated use of organic, bio and  chemical fertilizers for higher crop productivity  and maintenance of soil health as under:

 Organic Manures 

  1. Farmyard manure (FYM): Apply good  quality farmyard manure before sowing and  reduce the fertilizer quantity by 2 kg of N  and 1 kg of P per tonne of farmyard manure.  Similarly, where wheat follows potato which  received 10 tonnes of farmyard manure per  acre, no phosphorus and only one-half of  the recommended nitrogen dose i.e 25 kg N  (55 kg urea per acre) need to be applied.  

ii. Poultry manure/gobar gas plant slurry/ press mud: If 2.5 tonne per acre of poultry  manure or 2.4 tonne of gobar gas plant  slurry after drying was applied to rice,  reduce the fertilizer N dose in wheat by 25%

Fertilizer Requirement (kg/acre)

UREADAP or SSPMOPZINC
1105515520

Nutrient Requirement (kg/acre)

NITROGENPHOSPHORUSPOTASH
502512

Chemical control-

  • Preferred because of less labour requirement and no mechanical damage during manual weeding.
  • As pre-emergence, apply Pendimethalin (Stomp 30 EC) @1 Ltr at 0-3 days before sowing in 200 litres of water/acre.
  • Use 2, 4-D @250 ml in 150 ltr water for controlling broad leaf weeds.

Weed control in durum wheat: All the above mentioned pre and post emergence herbicides at recommended dose and time can be used for weed control  in durum wheat, except Total / Markpower/ Atlantis / Accord Plus / Shagun 21-11 / ACM-9 / EMEK. Apply 500 g of isoproturon group of herbicides at 40-45 days after sowing in  medium to heavy textured soils and do not use isoproturon on light textured soils. 

  • Spray should be as uniform as possible and on clear days. 
  • After spray, irrigation should be light as heavy irrigation reduces the efficacy of  herbicides. 
  • After spray, flush the spray pump thoroughly with water and then with washing  soda solution (0.5%) to remove traces of herbicides, as contaminated spray pump  may be phytotoxic when used for spray on other crops.  
  • If raya, sarson or gobhi sarson is sown in wheat, use isoproturon, clodinafop or  fenoxaprop group of herbicides at recommended doses.  
  • In areas where there is problem of resistance in gulli danda, do not use isoproturon  group of herbicides. 
  • Use flat fan or flood jet nozzle for pre-emergence herbicides and flat fan nozzle for post  emergence herbicides. 
  • Change the herbicide group every year to prevent the development of resistance in  weeds. 
  • Some weed plants may escape after the application of herbicides.
  • These plants  should be uprooted before they produce seeds. This practice will reduce the weed  problem in next crop of wheat.

Recommended time of irrigations is as below in the table:

NUMBER OF IRRIGATIONS

INTERVAL AFTER SOWING
(IN DAYS)

1st irrigation

20-25 days
2nd irrigation40-45 days
3rd irrigation60-65 days
4th irrigation80-85 days
5th irrigation100-105 days
6th irrigation115-120 days
  • The number of irrigations required will vary depending upon soil type, water availability etc.
  • Crown root initiation and heading stages are the most critical to moisture stress. For dwarf high yielding varieties, give pre sowing irrigation.
  • For heavy soils, four to six irrigations are required whereas for light soils 6-8 irrigations are necessary.
  • Under limited water supply apply irrigation only at critical stage.
  • When water is available for only one irrigation, then apply at crown root initiation stage.
  • When two irrigations are available then apply at crown root initiation and flowering stage.
  • Where three irrigations are possible, 1st irrigation should be given at CRI stage and 2nd at late jointing (boot) and 3rd at milking stage.
  • CRI stage is most important stage for irrigation.
  • It has been found that each week delay in 1st irrigation from CRI stage results in yield reduction of 83-125 kg per acre.
  • First irrigation should be given 20-25 days after sowing. This is crown root initiation stage and moisture stress at this stage will lead to yield loss.
  • At tillering stage within 40-45 days after sowing, apply second irrigation. Third irrigation within 60-65 DAS at late jointing stage.
  • At flowering stage (within 80-85 days) give fourth irrigation. Fifth irrigation at dough stage (within 100-105 DAS).or dry conditions, apply irrigation with interval of 2 weeks. 
  • In rainy season, it does not require any irrigation and in winter season, less irrigation should be given as the plant not take up much water. 
  • First irrigation must be done immediately after suckers get planted. Do not overwater the fields as they are harmful for crops.
  • Remember that before watering the crops again let fields dry first. Before irrigation drenching should be done so that extra water will runs out.  
  • Sprinkler and drip irrigation techniques are the micro irrigation technologies that  lead to substantial savings of water in irrigating wheat.
  • In areas of water scarcity or very limited  water availability for irrigation, such micro-irrigation techniques are useful in improving the Water  Use Efficiency(WUE) and the cost of production as a whole.
  • The practice of sprinkler irrigation are  in practice in Haryana in the NWPZ, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in Central Zone(CZ) and  Maharashtra Peninsular Zone(PZ).
  • Sprinkler and drip irrigation systems recorded significant yield  for NWPZ (IW/CPE ratio of 1.20)with 5.3 t/ha, for CZ(IW/CPE ratio of 0.60) with 4.5 t/ha and  for PZ ((IW/CPE ratio of 0.80) with 4.5 t/ha.(Ref. DWR,Karnal,2013-14).
  • However, the initial high  cost of the system and the higher recurring maintenance cost poses a hindrance particularly for the  SMF.

Insect Pests And Their Control: 

1.Aphids:

Symptoms-

  • These are nearly transparent, soft-bodied sucking insects.
  • Cause yellowing and premature death of leaves.
  • Infestation usually occurs during second fortnight of January till crop harvesting.
    Management-
  • For management , use chrysoperla predators 5-8 thousand/acre or use 50 ml/Ltr neem concentrate.
  • In cloudy weather infestation of aphid is occurred.
  • Spray with Thiamethoxam @ 80 gm or Imidacloprid 40-60 ml/ acre in 100 Ltr of water.

2.Termite:

Symptoms-

  • Termites attack the crop at various growth stages, from seedlings to maturity.
  • The severely damaged plants can be easily uprooted and look wilted and dried.
  • In case roots are partially damaged, the plants show yellowing.

Management-

To control broadcast 1 Ltr of Chlorpyriphos 20 EC mix with 20 kg sand/acre then applies a light irrigation.

3. Army worm-

Scout for True Armyworms in Oats and Wheat

Symptoms-

  • Attack usually wheat during March-April, however it is also observed  in the month of December in fields having large loads of paddy straw.
  • It damages  leaves and earheads.

Management-

  • Spray 40 ml Coragen 18.5 SC (chlorantraniliprole*) or 400 ml  Ekalux (quinalphos) in 80-100 litres of water per acre with hand-operated knapsack  sprayer or in 30 litres of water with motorized sprayer.
  • For better effectiveness, spraying done in the evening when armyworm larvae are  more active.
  • Alternatively, broadcast 7 kg  Mortel / Regent 0.3 G (fipronil) or 1 litre Dursban 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) mixed with 20  kg of moist sand in one acre before first irrigation
  • 4. Pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens)
  • Rice pink stem borer (409)
  • Symptoms-
  • Generally attacks the wheat crop at  seedling stage.
  • The larva bore into the stem of young plant and kills the central  shoot causing ‘dead heart’.
  • If the severe damage of pink stem borer is observed in  previous rice crop, avoid sowing of wheat in the month of October
  • Prefer to irrigate  the fields during day time to maximize predation of insects by birds.
  • Management-
  • In case of severe  infestation, broadcast 7 kg Mortel/Regent 0.3 G (fipronil) or 1 litre Dursban 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) mixed with 20 kg of moist sand in one acre before first irrigation. 
  • Alternatively, spray 50 ml Coragen 18.5 SC (chlorantraniliprole) in 80-100 litre of  water per acre.

1.Manganese Deficiency:

Great Lakes Grain FS > News > News Detail

  • Manganese deficiency generally appears in light soils  under intensive cropping especially in rice-wheat rotation.
  • In acute deficiency whole of the plant may die.
  • At earing stage, the symptoms become prominent on flag leaf.  

Management-

  • In manganese deficient soils, give one spray of 0.5% manganese sulphate  solution (1.0 kg manganese sulphate in 200 litres of water), 2-4 days before first  irrigation and three sprays afterwards at weekly intervals on sunny days.
  • Do not  grow durum varieties in sandy soils as these varieties are prone to manganese  deficiency.
  • Manganese sulphate should be sprayed only as its soil application  is not profitable.

2. Zinc Deficiency:  

Zinc deficiency in wheat | Severe symptoms of zinc deficienc ...

Symptoms-

Zinc  deficiency symptoms in wheat are stunted and bushy crop with leaves chlorotic in  the middle, which later break and keep hanging.

Management-

  • Apply 25 kg of zinc sulphate (21%)  per acre which will be enough for 2-3 years.
  • Foliar spray of 0.5% zinc sulphate (21% zinc).
  • Prepare solution for spray by  dissolving 1kg Zinc Sulphate and 1/2 kg unslaked lime in 200 litres of water. sufficient for spraying an acre of wheat once.
  • Two or three sprays at 15- day intervals are needed. 

Enriching zinc content in wheat grain: The zinc content in wheat grain (for  nutritional quality improvement) can be increased by giving one or two sprays of 0.5%  zinc sulphate heptahydrate (21%) solution from anthesis to early grain development  stages in the evening hours.

3.Sulphur Deficiency :

Sulphur deficiency-Wheat | Yara UK

Symptoms-

  • Wheat crop suffers from  deficiency when sown  in sandy soils.
  •  Severe when the winter rains continue for  a long time in the early growth period.
  •  Symptoms first appear on the younger  leaves with fading of the normal green colour.
  •  Topmost leaves become light  yellow except for the tip, while the lower leaves retain green colour for a longer time. 
  •  Distinctly different from the nitrogen deficiency where the yellowing starts with  the lower leaves.  

Management-

  • In sulphur deficient soils, where phosphorus has been applied through DAP  instead of single super phosphate, apply 100 kg of gypsum or 18 kg bentonite-sulphur  (90%) per acre before sowing to meet the sulphur requirement of the wheat.
  • Gypsum can also be applied in standing crop if deficiency of sulphur is observed.

Diseases And Their Control:

1.Flag smut : (Urocystis agropyri)

Symptoms-

  • It is seed borne disease.
  • Infection spread through wind.
  • It is favored by cool, humid conditions during flowering period of the host plant.

Management-

  • Treat the seed with fungicides like carboxyl (Vitavax 75 WP @ 2.5 gm/kg of seeds), Carbendazim(Bavistin 50 WP)@2.5gm /kg seed),Tebuconazole(Raxil 2 DS)@1.25 gm/kg of seed) if the disease level in the seed lot is high.
  •  Treat the seed with a combination of Trichoderma viride@ 4 gm/kg seed and half the recommended dose of Carboxin(Vitavax 75 WP)@1.25 gm/kg seed.

2.Powdery mildew : (Blumeria graminis tritici)

Symptoms-

  • Greyish white powdery growth appears on the leaf, sheath, stem and floral parts.
  • Powdery growth later become black lesion and cause drying of leaves and other parts.

Management-

  •  Spray with wettable sulphur@2 gm/ Ltr of water or Carbendazim @400gm/acre.
  • In case of high incidence, spray with Propiconazole@2 ml/ Ltr of water.

3.Brown rust: Puccinia recondita

Symptoms-

  • It is favored by warm temperatures (15-30° C) and humid conditions.
  • Brown rust is characterized by reddish- brown spores that occur in oval or elongated pustules.
  • The disease can develop rapidly when free moisture is available and temperatures are near 20° C.
  • Successive generations of urediospores can be produced every 10-14 days if conditions are favorable.
  • Management-
  • For control of this disease, follow mixed cropping with suitable crops.
  • Avoid excessive use of Nitrogen fertilizer.
  • Spray Zineb Z-78@400 gm/acre or Propiconazole@2ml/Litre of water.

4.Stripe/Yellow rust : Puccinia striiformis

Symptoms-

  • The ideal growth conditions for yellow rust are temperature of between 8-13° C for spore germination and penetration, and 12-15° C for further development and with free water.
  • The yield penalties from yellow rust in wheat can range from 5% to as high as 30% in high disease pressure scenarios.
    Management-
  • For control of this disease, use rust resistant variety.
  • Follow crop rotation and adopt mix cropping pattern.
  • Avoid excess use of Nitrogen.
  • Dusting of Sulphur @5-10 kg/acre or take spray of Mancozeb @ 2 gm/Ltr or spray the crop with Propiconazole (Tilt) 25 EC @2 ml / litre of water.

5.Karnal bunt : (Neovossia indica)

Symptoms-

  • It is seed and soil borne disease.
  • Infection occurs at flowering stage.
  • Cloudy weather condition during spike emergence to grain filling stage of crop leads to development of disease.
  • If the rains occur during the month of February in north Indian plains (disease-prone areas), the disease is likely to come with higher severity.
    Management-
  • For control of this disease use karnal bunt resistant varieties.
  • For management of this disease, take one spray of Propiconazole (Tilt 25 EC) @2ml/ Ltr of water at ear head emergence stage. 

6.Stem Rust: Puccinia graminis tritici

Symptom:

  • Pustules are dark reddish brown – occur on both sides of the leaves, on the stems, and on the spikes
  • Prior to pustule formation, “flecks” may appear.
  • As the spore masses break through, the surface tissues take on a ragged and torn appearance
  • Survival : Both survive on stubbles and volunteer crops
  • Alternate host : Berberis spp.

Management:

  • Mixed cropping and crop rotation
  • Avoid excess nitrogen
  • Sulphur dusting @ 35-40 kg/ha
  • Mancozeb @ 2g/lit
  • Resistant varieties
    • Lerma Rojo, Safed Lerma,
    • Sonalika and Chotil

7.Yellowing in the seedling stage

Tip burn and yellowing of leaves on wheat due to freezing temperature. | Download Scientific Diagram

Symptoms-

  •  Caused by nutrient deficiency, bad  weather conditions, poor drainage, attack of Alternaria and Drechslera sp.   
  • Yellowing  of young leaves may be due to sulphur deficiency, whereas yellowing of older leaves  could be due to nitrogen deficiency.
  • Management-
  • In light soil, add 25 kg zinc sulphate per acre. 
  • Spray 3% urea solution (3 kg in 100 litres of water).   
  • Give proper irrigation to counteract the effect of frost.
  • Avoid excessive irrigation.
  • Apply 13 kg per acre  Furadan 3 G at sowing time. 
  • Apply 100 kg gypsum per acre for correcting sulphur deficiency
  • Harvesting of high yielding dwarf variety is carried out when leaves and stem turn yellow and become fairly dry.
  • To avoid loss in yield crop should be harvested before it is dead ripe.
  • Timely harvesting is needed for optimum quality and consumer acceptance.
  • The right stage for harvesting is when moisture in grain reaches to 25-30%.
  • For manual harvesting use serrate edge sickles.
  • Combines harvester are also available which can do harvesting, threshing and winnowing of wheat crop in single operation.
  • After manual harvesting, dried crops for three to four days on threshing floor so that moisture content of grain comes down to 10-12% and then threshing is done by trampling bullocks or thresher attached to bullocks.
  • Direct sun drying and excessive drying should be avoided and the grains should be packed in sound clean gunny bags to minimize the losses.
  • The Hapur tekka is a cylindrical rubberized cloth structure supported by bamboo poles on a metal tube base, and has a small hole in the bottom through which grain can be removed.
  • Large scale grain storage is done in CAP (Cover and Plinth) and silos.
  • To keep away several pest and disease during storage, use 1% malathion solution for disinfection of gunny bags.
  • Properly clean the storage house, remove the cracks and fill the rat burrows with cement.
  • White wash the storage house before storing grains and spray Malathion 50 EC @ 3 Ltr/100 Sq. meters.
  • Place the heap of bags 50 cm away from wall and in between the heaps give some gaps.
  • Also there should be a gap between the roof and the bags.